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Large biological molecules are synthesized by removing:

water

What type of chemical reaction results in the breakdown of organic polymers into their respective subunits?

hydrolysis

Which of the following reactions requires the removal of water to form a covalent bond?

glucose + galactose - lactose

Which of the following summarizes the relationship between dehydration reactions and hydrolysis?

Dehydration reactions assemble to polymers, and hydrolysis breaks them down.

In dehydration synthesis, the atoms that make up a water molecule are derived from:

both of the reactants

If digestion is ________, then synthesis is ______.

hydrolysis; dehydration

Hydrolysis may be correctly described as the:

breaking of a compound into its subunits by adding water between the subunits

Keratin and silk are examples of ________, whereas glucose and maltose are examples of _________.

proteins; carbohydrates

Dehydration synthesis involves the removal of a hydrogen ion and a hydroxyl ion. What happens next?

the hydrogen and hydroxyl ions interact to form water

The carbohydrate in DNA is:

deoxyribose

Chitin is an example of a:

polysaccharide

Which of the following include monosaccharide monomers?

carbohydrates

How would a chemist describe phospholipids?

They have a polar nitrogen-phosphate head and two non-polar fatty acid tails.

Which of the following is insoluble in water?

olive oil

Fats and oils are made of:

three fatty acids and one glycerol

Two classes of organic compounds typically provide energy for living systems. Representatives of these two classes are:

fats and polysaccharides

HDL and LDL are different types of cholesterol found in the blood. These compounds are:

lipids

Proteins are polymers of ______

amino acids

What type of bond joins the monomers in a protein's primary structure?

peptide

The secondary structure of a protein results from _________.

hydrogen bonds

Tertiary structure is NOT directly dependent on _____________.

peptide bonds

What do peptide bonds do?

Link together the amino acids of a protein's primary structure.

What is the monomer of a protein?

amino acid

How are the amino acids connected to form a chain?

By covalent bond during a dehydration reaction.

Which levels of structure are broken when a protein is denatured?

secondary, tertiary, and quaternary structure

Enzymes are _________ that orchestrate chemical reactions within the body.

proteins

Organisms contain thousands of different proteins composed of __________ different animo acids.

20

The specific function of a protein is determined by the:

exact sequence of amino acids

What do carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins have in common?

covalent bonding holds these molecules together

A peptide bond forms between which of these groups?

carboxyl and amino

All of the following are polymers EXCEPT:

maltose

Complex, three-dimensional, tertiary structures of globular proteins are characterized by:

disulfide bonds

The four polypeptides that are joined together to make hemoglobin represent which level of protein organization?

quaternary structure

Which type of molecule is most abundant in a typical cell?

water

Which of the following refers to the amino acid sequence of proteins?

primary

Which of the following biological molecules are composed of amino acid subunits?

proteins

Which of the following may possess primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary structures?

proteins

Scientists consider prions to be puzzling proteins. Which of the following is TRUE about prions?

Prions are proteins that cause nearby proteins to change shape.

What is nucleotide composed of?

a sugar, a phosphate group, and a nitrogen-containing base

The backbone of a nucleic acid molecule is made of:

sugar and phosphate group

DNA carries genetic information in its:

sequence of bases

Adenosine triphosphate is an example of a:

nucleotide

A nucleotide is made of a:

phosphate, sugar, and base

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