A chromosome that carries information about an organism ex) hair color, eye color etc, but does not determine sex
Structure in the center of a chromosome that holds 2 chromatids together and allows chromosomes to connect to spindle fibers
1 of the 2 condensed strands of a chromosome; has an exact copy
Determines if an organism will be male or female; either X or Y
A cell that has 2 sets of genetic information, one from a mother, one from a father
Having 1 set of chromosomes; sperm, egg or bacterial cells
Having the same type of information in 2 different chromosomes; same size and shape
A picture of an organisms chromosomes, can be used to determine the sex or genetic disorders
rod shaped structure in a cell made of DNA and protein
When a dipliod reproductive cell goes through divisions to decrease the number of chromosomes by half
Reproductive cells that are haploid (egg and sperm cells)
Genetic material that has been mixed, producing unique offspring
Random distribution of genes on homologous chromosomes during anaphase I of meiosis I, resulting in genetic recombination.
The process of meiosis that produces sperm cells.
The process of meiosis that produces 1 egg cell and 3 polar bodies.
Producing offspring from one parent. Offspring are genetically identical to the parent.
Producing of offspring by the joining of a sperm and egg cell, which are products of meiosis.
Pairing of homologous chromosomes during prophase I in meiosis I.
A pair of homologous chromosomes that come together during meiosis
When parts of chromatids break off and reattach to their homologous
Chromosomes line up in the center of the cell; karyotypes are often made by looking at this stage
The division of a cell's nucleus
The continuous events that make up the life of a cell
the division of the cytoplasm of a cell, occurs during cell reproduction
A stage of cell growth (G1), maturation, DNA replication (S), and preperation for cell division (G2)
The stage during which chromosomes condense, spindle fibers are formed, and the nuclear membrane breaks down
Chromosomes move apart to opposite sides of the dividing cell by separating at the centromere
Cell membrane pinches in; Nuclear membrane starts to form, chromosomes unravel, spindle fibers disassemble
The simple way in which prokaryotic organisms produce offspring cells