Sociology

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the idea the social world guides our actions and life choices just as the seasons influence activites and choice of clothing describes

free will

the systematic study of human society

sociology

the strange in the familiar

reject the familiar idea that people simply decide how to act in favor of the initiality strange idea that society shapes our llives

sociologist who studied patterns of suicide in europe

emile durkheim

because there is more social isolation in rual areas of the united states than in urban areas we would expect suicide rates to be

higher in rural areas

social marginality

being defined by others as an outsider

c. wright mills claimed that the sociological imagination transformed

personal problems into public issues

europe, israel, japan, and australia are

high-income nations

almost all latin america and asia are

middle-income nations

why is it important to understand the world beyond our own borders

all of the above

making use of sociological perspective encourages

challenging commonly held beliefs

which of the following historical change is among the factors that stimulated the development of sociology as a disipline

the rise of industrial factories and cities

main goal of sociologys pioneers like comte and durkheim is

to discover how society actually operates

what is a way of understanding the world based on science

positivism

sociologists agree that science is a big part of sociology but most also recognice that

all the above

how and why specific facts are related is

theory

to evalutate a theory, sociologists

gather data or fact

in deciding what kinds of questions to ask in their research sociologist are guided by

one or more theoretical approaches

assumes society is a complex system whose parts world together to promote solidarity and stability

structural-functional approach

using structural functional approach which of the following questions might you ask about marriage

what are the consequences of marriage for the operation of society

term for negative consequences

social dysfunctions

accurate criticism of the structural functional approach

it ignores inequality that can generate tension and conflict

"framework for building theory that sees society as an arena of inequality that generates conflict and change"

social-conflict approach

using social conflict approach a sociologist might highlight which of the following

all of the above

what approaches are macro level, describing societies in broad terms

structural-functional and social-conflict

what is micro-level focus

two poeple on an airplane getting to know each other

criticism of the symbolic-interaction approach

ignores how structural factors such as class affect peoples experience

simplifed discription unfairly applied to every person in some category

stereotype

sociological generalizations

all of the above

science can be defined as

a logical system that bases knowledge on direct, systematic observation

empirical evidence

information we can verify with our senses

sociological perspective reveals that

much of what passes for "common sense" in the united states turns out to be at least partly wrong

imagine that you were going to measure the age of a number of respondents taking part in a survey. As you record the data, you are using the concept age as

variable

involves deciding exactly what is to be measured when assigning value to a variable

operationalization

the arithmetic average of a series of numbers

mean

the value that occurs midway in a series of numbers

median

in measurement, reliability refers to

whether repeating the measurement yields consistent results

measuring exactly what one intends to meansure

validity

two variables are said to display correlation if

they vary together

false association between two variables that is caused by some third variable is called

spurious correlation

ability to neutralize the effect of one variable in order to assess the relationship between two other variables

scientific control

true about cause and effect relationships in social world

most patterns of behavior are caused by many factors

ideal objectivity means researchers

must try to adopt a stance of personal neutrality toward the outcome of the research

a statement of a possible relationship between two or more variables

hypothesis

three researchers wish to test the effects of playing soft music during an exam on the test performance of their sociology students. they conduct an experiment in which one text taking class hears music and another does not. in experimental terms the calss hearing the music is called

experimental group

any change in a subjects behavior caused by the awareness of being studied

hawthorne effect

smaller number of people used to represent an entire population

sample

whats wrong with " do you think the the government should spend less for defense and more for health care?"

two different questions are being asked

inductive logical thought involves

transforming specific observations into general theory

a way pepole can mislead others with statistics

all of the above

beliefs, values, behavior, and material objects that make up peoples lifes

culture

intangible world of ideas created by members of society

nonmaterial culture

cars, computers, and iphones are examples of

material culture

what we find everywhere around the world

people create cultural systems

homo sapiens first appeared on earth how long ago

250,000 years

a shared way of life; political entity

culture; nation

symbol

anything that carries meaning to people who share a culture

cultural transmission refers to the process of

passing cultural patterns from one generation to another

conveys the point of the sapir-whorf thesis

people see the world through cultural lens of their language

standards by which poeple who share culture find as desirable, good, and beautiful

values

rules about everyday casual living; rules with great moral significance

folkways; mores

wrong- doing such as an adult forcing a child to engage in sexual activity, is an example of violating cultural

mores

elements of social control in everyday life include

all of the above

tangible or physical human creations

artifacts

what statement about technology is true

improves life in some ways but threatens it in others

what is important in the postindustrial, computer based phase

gaining symbolic skills including speaking writing and computing

subculture

cultural patterns that set off a part of a society's population

claim that us culture is dominated by european and especially english ways of life

eurocentric

counterculture

cultural patterns that oppose those that are widely held

cultural integration refers to the fact that

change in one cultural patten is usually linked to changes in others

cultural lag refers to

some cultural elements change more quickly than others

three different ways cultural change is set in motion

invention, discovery, diffusion

the spread of cultural traits from one society to another

diffusion

a person who criticizes the amish farmer as backward for tilling his fields with horses and a plow instead of using a tractor is displaying

ethnocentrism

understanding another culture on its own terms and using its own standards

cultural relativism

adds to the creation of global culture

all of the above

the stability of the us society rests on the core values shared by most people

sociobiology approach

cultural universals are elements of culture that

are part of every know culture

linked to the philosophical doctrine of materialism

the social-conflict approach

why does culture at as a constraint limiting human freedom

humans cannot create new culture for themselves

culture is a source of human freedom because

as cultural creatures, humans make and remake the world for themselves

people who interact in a defined territory and share culture

society

sociocultural evolution

changes that occur as a society acquires new technology

hunting and gathering societies were the only kind on the earth until wheh

12,00 years ago

social standing of women and men in hunting gathering societies

fairly equal, with men and women making a vital contribution to survival

horticultural societies are those that

people use simple hand tools to raise crops

as societies generate a greater productive surplus their people generally

gain more productive specialization

type of society that engages in large scale farming based on the use of plows drawn by animals or more powerful energy force

agrarian

the development of more complex technology

has both positive and negative effects

type of society with most productive specialization

industrial

films like frankenstein make a point that advancing technology

not only solves some problems but creates new ones

postindustrial society is based on

an information based economy

the driving force of social change

advancing technology

the widespread beliefs that supported the capitalist economic system

false consciousness

those who own and operate factories and other businesses in pursuit of profits

capitalists

alienation

experience of isolation and misery resulting from powerlessness

to compare societies at different times in history, max weber made use of

ideal types

traditional societies

people pass the same values and beliefs from generation to generation

rationality

deliberate matter of fact calculation of the most efficient way to accomplish any task

max weber claimed that modern society had become

disenchanted

weber traced the origins of the capitalist economy in europe to

the protestant reformation

comparing and contrasting the ideas of karl marx and max weber which of the following statements is true

both marx and weber thought modern society was alienating although for different reasons

max weber described the features of rational social organization pointing to all but one of the following. which one is not part of his analysis

people in the workplace share highly personal realationships

elements of society, including cultural norms, values, and beliefs as

social facts

the importance of a social structure such as family

family plays a part in the operation of society

a condition in which society provides little moral guidance to individuals

anomie

durkheim claimed that societies change as....... gives way to.........

mechanical solidarity; organic solidarity

who held the most optimistic view of modern society

emile durkeim

who was most interested in how society in divided

karl marz

who would you ask about societys worldview to be a powerful force causing change

gerhard lenski

life long social experience by which human beings develop their potential and learn culture

socialization

persons fairly consistent pattern of acting, thinking and feeling

personality

nature versus nurture

nurture is far more important than nature

lesson learned from the cases of anna isabelle and genie

all of the above

"self"

the part of an individuals personality composed of self awareness and self image

origin of the self

social experience

"taking the role of the other"

imagining a situation from another person's point of view

"looking glass self"

people see themselves as they think others see them

the people children take the role of as they model themselves on important people in their lives

significant other

the stages of development

imitation, play, game, generalized other

socialization

personality develops over the entire life course in patterned stages

why is family important to the socialization process

all of the above

the special contribution of schooling to the socialization process includes

exposing the child to a bureaucratic setting

the special importance of the peer group is the fact that it

lets children escape the direct supervision of parents

when people model themselves after the members of peer groups they would life to join

anticipatory socialization

in us a tv is turned on for how many hours a day

7

looking at childhood in global perspective we find that

rich societies extend childhood much longer than poor societies do

industrial societies typically define people in old age as

more out of touch and less socially important than younger adults

life course

while life course stages are much the same throughout the world

a category of people with a common characteristic usually their age

cohort

not linked to total institution

staff members encourage the individual growth and creativity of inmates

resocialization process

all of the above

people act and react in relation to others

social interaction

you occupy a number of statuses, these statuses make up your

status set

defines who and what we are in relation to others

status

social position that is received at birth or involuntarily assumed later in life

ascribed status

social position that is assumed voluntarily and that reflects a significant measure of personal ability and effort

achieved status

people thinking julie is always a cop

master status

being an honor student is an example of

achieved status

behavior people expect of someone who hold a particular status

role

role set

a number of roles attached to a single status

tension among roles connected to a single status

role strain

mom balancing being an artist and mom

role conflict

process by which people disengage from important social roles

role exit

designate the process by which people creatively shape reality as they interact

social construction of reality

thomas theorem

situations defined as real are real in their consequences

likely to play a part in the reality we construct through social interaction

all of the above

social interaction in terms of theatrical performance

dramaturgical analysis

presentation of self

efforts to create impressions in the minds of others

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