What is a radiograph?
It is an image of the number and distribution of x-rays passing through the patient.
(the more x-rays that pass = blacker)
also, "A 2-dimensional image of a 3-dimensional object." (sigh)
What are the "5 Inherent Opacities"?
What is Differential Absorption?
it's a function of differences in physical densities and effective atomic numbers of a substance
What problems will radiographs being "2-D pictures of 3-D objects" cause for us painfully dumb veterinary students?
Magnifications and Distortion
Loss of Depth Perception
Summation of Shadows
What does border effacement result in?
Loss of border visualization when two structures of the same opacity are in contact
How are radiographs named?
Using the point of entrance to the point of exit of the x-ray beam.
VD = ventral to dorsal etc...
What method of consistent viewing of radiographs is recommended by the text?
Cranial to the Left in Lateral Views
Cranial to the Top in VD or DV Views
and Proximal to the Top for Extremities
What can you do to increase the quality of your radiographic interpretations?
Consider signalment, history and PE
View in a dark, quiet location
Evaluate technical Quality of the study (Completeness, Positioning, Technique and Artifacts)
Develop a consistent search pattern (use a check list at first)
How should you describe the changes from normal that you find on radiographs?
The Roentgen Signs:
What are some errors in interpretation?
Searching Errors (you don't see something that is there)
Recognition Errors (you don't know something you find is abnormal)
Decision-making Errors (placing the wrong level of importance on a finding)
Egocentric Errors (as if you would ever make an error)