7th Grade American Century Exam Keywords

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A complete overview of chapter 10,11,12,13 keywords and topics.

Militarism

The belief that a nation needs a large military force. DO YOU NEED EXTRA HELP? Go to: http://historyexamstudy.wikispaces.micds.org

Imperialism

The act of competing with other countries for colonies

Nationalism

Strong feelings of pride and protectiveness towards one's country

Central Powers

Enemies of the allies, made of Austria-Hungary, Germany, the Ottoman empire (Turkey) and Bulgaria

Allies (WWI)

Enemies of the Central Powers made of Serbia, Russia. France, Great Britain, Italy and other countries

trench warfare

A form of battling that involves fighting from inside trenches using machine guns and tanks, and poison gas.

U-boat

The first form of submarines, created by the Germans

Woodrow Wilson

President of the united states in 1914. Kept America neutral until the arrival of the Zimmermann telegram.

neutrality

non-participation in a dispute or war

Zimmermann telegram

A telegram sent to Mexico by Germany offering return of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona to Mexico if Mexico assisted in the war against the USA

Vladimir Lenin

Founder of the communistic group in Russia. Last Russian ruler before Stalin and the communist take over.

communism

a form of socialism that abolishes private ownership

John Pershing

General in the AEF, 2 million soldiers went to France

AEF

American Expeditionary Force was the first American ground troops to reach the European front. Commanded by Pershing, they began arriving in France in the summer of 1917.

convoy system

the protection of merchant ships from U-boat-German submarine-attacks by having the ships travel in large groups escorted by warships

Second Battle of the Marne

The first battle that the US participated in overseas. They stopped Germany from taking France, turning point of World War One

Alvin York

War hero who single handedly killed 25 men and help captive 132 Germans

Armistice

an temporary agreement to stop fighting

war bonds

Loan like bonds sold by the government to first raise money for World War One

propaganda

Information that is spread for the purpose of promoting the war effort. Ex. Propaganda posters

Espionage Act

An act passed by congress in 1917 making it illegal to criticize the war.

Sedition Act

An act passed by congress in 1918 making it illegal to not enter the draft with out an excuse and illegal to criticize the war.

Oliver Holmes

Man who wrote the courts opinion in the Schenck vs. United States case. Schenck was accused of violating the Espionage and Sedition acts.

Great Migration

movement of over 300,000 African American from the rural south into Northern cities between 1914 and 1920 to escape racsim in the south and work in soldiers jobs

League of Nations

A group like the U.N, settles international conflicts through debates

Fourteen Points

When Wilson addressed congress about secret treaties and freedom of the seas.

Treaty of Versailles

Created by the leaders victorious allies Nations: France, Britain, US, and signed by Germany to help stop WWI. The treaty stripped Germany of all its military. Forced Germany to repair war damages and acknowledge guilt for causing WWI. This also stopped the manufacture of weapons in Germany.

reparations

Money that a defeated nation must pay for destruction cause by war.

Red Scare

Fear of a communistic revolution in America

Reds

Communists

Anarchists

Radicals opposing any form of government

Palmer raids

An event in which 6000 people were arrested and their homes were searched without warrant. This was a precautionary of the Red Scare.

Warren Harding

President after WWI. Wanted "less government in business and more business in government." Did not approve of government regulations

Teapot Dome Scandal

a government scandal involving a former United States Navy oil reserve in Wyoming that was secretly leased to a private oil company in 1921

laissez faire

policy based on the idea that government should play as small a role as possible in the economy

Calvin Coolidge

Became president when Harding died. Tried to clean up scandals by Harding. Business prospered and people's wealth increased. 1923-1929

isolationist

People who wanted the United States to stay out of world affairs, except for self-defense. Both Harding and Coolidge believed in this.

Kellogg-Briand Pact

agreement signed in 1928 in which nations agreed not to pose the threat of war against one another except for self-defense

assembly line

Created by Ford Co., increased production rate.

installment buying

A consumers buys products by promising to pay small, regular amounts over a period of time. Like a credit card, except unregulated.

flapper

young woman in the 1920s who rebelled against traditional ways of thinking and acting

Prohibition

the law that said alcoholic beverages could not legally be manufactured, transported, or sold in the U.S.

Al Capone

A mob king in Chicago who controlled a large network of speakeasies with enormous profits. His illegal activities convey the failure of prohibition in the twenties and the problems with gangs.

NAACP

The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People tried to protect the constitutional right of African Americans. An act that wasn't passed by congress.

Marcus Gravey

Found of the Universal Negro Improvement Association. Wanted Africans to return to Africa for a new nation.

fundamentalism

Literal interpretation and strict adherence to basic principles of a religion.

Ku Klux Klan

Known as the KKK. Used violence against certain groups in America. Founded in the 1860s in the south; meant to control Catholics, Jews, immigrants and others thought to be un-American through threats and violence.

jazz

Form of music and dance became popular in the 20s. Originated in Louisiana.

mass media

forms of communication, such as newspapers and radio, that reach millions of people

Popular culture

Culture found in a large, heterogeneous society that shares certain habits despite differences in other personal characteristics. AKA pop culture.

Harlem Renaissance

The artistic rebirth of African-American hope, A period in the 1920s when African-American achievements in art and music and literature flourished

Lost Generation

Group of writers in 1920s who shared the belief that they were lost in a greedy, materialistic world that lacked moral values and often choose to flee to Europe

expatriates

People who choose to live in another country beside their own

Herbert Hoover

President of the U.S from 1923-1933 leader of the US in the beginning of the great depression. He didn't want the government involved in the peoples lives and thought that the people should express their individual rights.

speculation

Buying and selling stocks in hope of making a quick profit

buying on margin

Paying a down payment on stock and borrowed the rest. When they sold the stock they payed off the loan and kept the rest of the money.

Black Tuesday

October 29, 1929; the day the stock market crashed. Lead to the Crash of 1929

Crash of 1929

October 29; fell 23% over black Monday and Tuesday; borrowed funds to buy stocks was the cause of the crash- potential to borrow 78% of the price; took 25 years to recover.

Great Depression

the economic crisis and period of low business activity in the U.S. and other countries, roughly beginning with the stock-market crash in October, 1929, and continuing through most of the 1930s.

public works projects

publicly used facilities, such as schools and highways, built by federal, state, or local governments with public money

Bonus Army

Group of WWI vets. that marched to D.C. in 1932 to demand the immediate payment of their government war bonuses in cash

Franklin Roosevelt

The 32nd president of the United States. He was president from 1933 until his death in 1945 during both the Great Depression and World War II. He is the only president to have been elected 4 times. Led America out of the Great Depression.

fireside chat

A address to the public by Roosevelt.

Hundred Days

The famous congress session that passed laws supporting relief, recovery, and reform during 100 days.

Social Security Act

guaranteed retirement payments for enrolled workers beginning at age 65; set up federal-state system of unemployment insurance and care for dependent mothers and children, the handicapped, and public health.

New Deal

A serise of programs that helped support the three rs in the Hundred Days.

Second New Deal

A new set of programs and reforms launched by FDR in 1935

deficit spending

Government practice of spending more than it takes in from taxes.

Dust Bowl

Region of the Great Plains that experienced a drought in 1930 lasting for a decade, leaving many farmers without work or substantial wages.

Eleanor Roosevelt

Wife of Franklin Roosevelt and a strong advocate of human rights (1884-1962)

CIO

a federation of North American industrial unions that merged with the American Federation of Labor in 1955

sit-down strike

Work stoppage in which workers shut down all machines and refuse to leave a factory until their demands are met.

Securities and Exchange Commission

Government agency having primary responsibility for enforcing the Federal securities laws and regulating the securities industry. It protected investors, listened to complaints, issued licenses and penalized fraud.

liberal

a person who favors a political philosophy of progress and reform and the protection of civil liberties

conservative

a person who believes government power, particularly in the economy, should be limited in order to maximize individual freedom

Bataan Death March

April 1942, American soldiers were forced to march 65 miles to prison camps by their Japanese captors. It is called the Death March because so may of the prisoners died en route.

Battle of Midway

U.S. naval victory over the Japanese fleet in June 1942, in which the Japanese lost four of their best aircraft carriers. It marked a turning point in World War II.

Island Hopping

the American navy attacked islands held by the Japanese in the Pacific Ocean. The capture of each successive island from the Japanese brought the American navy closer to an invasion of Japan.

Manhattan Project

The code name for the secret United States project set up in 1942 to develop atomic bombs for use in World War II

Hiroshima

City in Japan, the first to be destroyed by an atomic bomb, on August 6, 1945. The bombing hastened the end of World War II.

War Production Board

During WWII, FDR established it to allocated scarce materials, limited or stopped the production of civilian goods, and distributed contracts among competing manufacturers

Rationing

a limited portion or allowance of food or goods; limitation of use

Rosie the Riveter

A propaganda character designed to increase production of female workers in the factories. It became a rallying symbol for women to do their part.

A. Phillip Randolph

organized a march on Washington DC to protest treatment of black workers in government industries

Bracero Program

United States labor agents recruited thousands of farm and railroad workers from Mexico. The program stimulated emigration for Mexico.

Japanese-American Internment

Roosevelt signed a document Feb. 19,1942 stating that all people of Japanese ancestry from California and parts of Washington, Oregon, and Arizona, needed to be removed. Put them in internment camps because of their fear for another attack by the Japanese.

Marshall Plan

a United States program of economic aid for the reconstruction of Europe (1948-1952)

G.I Bill of Rights

Also known as Servicemen's Readjustment Act of 1944 gave money to veterans to study in colleges, universities, gave medical treatment, loans to buy a house or farm or start a new business

Nuremberg Trials

Trials of the Nazi leaders, showed that people are responsible for their actions, even in wartime

United Nations

an organization of independent states formed in 1945 to promote international peace and security

Fascism

Started in the 1930s, Italy by Mussolini. It is extreme patriotism to the point of racism

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