Chapter 27 Test Notes .

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Dr. Marshall's Test Notess .

In his book "the Reverend Josiah Strong advocated..

American expansion to spread American religion and values .

By the 1890's the United States was bursting..

with a new sense of power generated by an increase in population, wealth, and industrial production .

A major factor in the shift in American foreign policy toward imperialism in the late nineteenth century was..

the need for overseas markets for increased agricultural and industrial production .

The clash between Germany and America over the Samoan Islands eventually resulted in...

a colonial division of the islands between Germany and the United States .

U.S. Naval captain Alfred Mahan argued..

that control of the sea was the key to world domination .

The numerous near-wars and diplomatic crises of the United States in the late 1880's and 1890's demonstrated..

the aggressive new national mood .

To justify American intervention in the Venezuela boundary dispute with Britain,

Secretary of State Olney invoked the Monroe Doctrine .

The Monroe doctrine says..

Europe will keep its hands off the Americans and we will not interfere in Europe .

During the boundary dispute between Venezuela and Britain..

the United States threatened war unless Britain backed down and accepted Venezuela's claim .

A primary reason that the British submitted their border dispute with Venezuela...

to arbitration was due to growing conflict with Germany which made them hesitant to be at odds with the United States .


settled the claims .

One reason white American sugar lords tried to overthrow native Hawaiian rule and annex the islands to the United States was..

they feared that Japan might intervene in Hawaii on behalf of the abused Japanese imported laborers .

Hawaii's Queen Liliuokalani was removed from power because...

she opposed annexation to the United States and insisted that native Hawaiians should control Hawaii .

Grover Cleveland was..

enthusiastic about U.S. imperialistic adventures in the 1890's .

Before a treaty annexing Hawaii to the United States could be rushed through the U.S. Senate in 1893...

President Harrisons term expired and anti-imperialist President Cleveland became president .

President Cleveland rejected the effort to annex Hawaii because..

he believed that the native Hawaiian had been wronged and that a majority opposed annexation to the United States .

In an attempt to persuade Spain to leave Cuba or to encourage the United States to help Cuba to gain independence Cuban insurrectos adopted..

a scorched earth policy of burning cane field and sugar mills .

Americans favored providing aid to the Cuban revolutionaries for the following reasons...

Popular outrage at the Spanish use of concentration camp, Fear that Spanish misrule in Cuba menaced the Gulf of Mexico and the route to the proposed Panama Canal, Sympathy for Cuban Patriots fighting for their freedom &&The stories reported by the yellow press .

The Battleship Maine was..

officially sent to Cuba to protect and evacuate American citizens .

The battleship Maine was...

sunk by an explosion on board the ship .

President McKinley asked..

Congress to declare war on Spain mainly because the American people demanded it .

The United States declared war on Spain..

even though the Spanish had already agreed to sign an armistice with the Cuban rebels .

The Teller amendment..

guaranteed that the United States would uphold the independence of Cuba .

The new steel navy of the united States provided..

America with great military strength during the Spanish American War .

A major weakness of Spain in the Spanish American War was...

the weak condition of its navy .

The Phillipian nationalist who led the insurrection against both Spanish rule and United States occupation was..

Emilio Aguinaldo .

When the United States captured the Philippines from Spain,

Hawaii was annexed by the United States as a key territory in the Pacific .

28. The Rough riders organized principally by Teddy Roosevelt..

were commanded by Colonel Leonard Wood .

The White Man's Burden was written...

as a result of America's occupation of the Philippines .

During the Spanish-American war..

the entire Spanish Fleet was destroyed at the battle of Santiago .

When the United States invaded Puerto Rico during the Spanish American War...

most of the population greeted the invaders as liberating heroes .

Sickness caused..

the greatest loss of life in both Cuba and the United States during the Spanish American War .

The acquisition of the Philippines was..

the most controversial event associated with the Spanish American War .

Under the provision of the Treaty of Paris with Spain the following became possessions of the United States..

Puerto Rico, Guam, The Philippines, Manila .

McKinley justified American acquisition of the Philippines by...

emphasizing that there was no acceptable alternative .

'American Imperialist' were..

those who advocated acquisition of the Philippines especially stressed their economic potential for American businessmen seeking trade with China and other Asian nations .

37. Anti-imperialist presented the following arguments against acquiring the Philippine islands...

It would violate the consent of the governed philosophy of the Declaration of Independence, Despotism abroad might lead to despotism at home - ruling by absolute power, Annexation would propel the United States into the political and military cauldron (brewing Kettle )of the far east &&The Filipinos wanted freedom not colonial rule .

38. Starting in 1917 many Puerto Ricans came to the United States seeking employment .


39. The Supreme Court ruled that American laws did not necessarily apply to overseas land acquired in the Spanish American War .


40. The United States gained a virtual right of intervention in Cuba in the Platt Amendment .


By acquiring the Philippine Islands at the end of the Spanish American War the United States,

Assumed rule over millions of Asian people, Became a fully fledged East Asian power, Assumed commitments that would be difficult to defend, Developed popular support for a big navy .

In chronological order the following events occurred,

1. Sinking of the Maine, 2. American declaration of War on Spain, 3. Passage of the Teller Amendment, 4. Passage of the Platt amendment .

In 1899 Guerilla warfare broke out because...

The United States refused to give the Filipino people independence .

The Philippine insurrection was finally broken in 1901 when..

Aguinaldo, the Filipino leader was captured .

The American war against the Philippine insurrectionist promoting Philippine independence resulted in..

torture and atrocities committed by both sides .

The Filipinos did not..

appreciate McKinley's attempts at benevolent assimilation .

When Filipinos first came to the United States, they..

worked mainly on farms .

Many Americans became concerned about the increasing foreign intervention in China because...

they feared that American Missions would be jeopardized and China's markets closed to non Europeans .

American initial open door policy was essentially an..

argument to promote free trade in China .

China's Boxer rebellion was.. .

an attempt to throw out or kill all foreigners .

In response to the Boxer Rebellion...

the United States abandoned its general principals of not getting involved in overseas conflicts .

Once the Boxer uprising ended..

China was spared further partition by foreign power .

Teddy Roosevelt received the Republican vice-presidential nomination in 1900 mainly because..

New York political bosses wanted him out of the governorship .

The extended open door policy advocated in Secretary John Hay's second note...

called on all big powers including the United States to observe the territorial integrity of china .

In the 1900 presidential election William Bryan was..

the Democratic candidate .

William Bryan insisted that..

imperialism was the paramount issue of the campaign .

The British gave up their opposition to an American controlled isthmian canal because...

they confronted an unfriendly Europe and were bogged down in the Boer War .

The alternative route to Panama seriously considered as the location of the Canal between the Atlantic and Pacific oceans was in...

Nicaragua .

The United States entered the 1. ____ with Panama,2. _____ with Britain and 3. _____ with Japan .

1.Hay-Bunau-Varilla Treaty; 2.The Hay Pauncefote Treaty; 3. The Gentlemen's agreement .

The United States gained..

a perpetual lease on the Panama Canal Zone in the Hay-Bunau-Varilla Treaty .

The Columbian Senate rejected the treaty with the United States for a canal because...

the United States did not offer enough money .

Roosevelt's role in the Panamanian Revolution involved...

using American Naval forces to block Columbian troops from crossing the isthmus and crushing the revolt .

The revolution in Panama began when...

a Chinese civilian and a donkey were killed .

Roosevelt wanted an isthmus canal constructed because..

the 1904 election was approaching .

During the building of the canal the following difficulties were encountered..

Labor troubles, Landsides, Poor sanitation &&Yellow fever .

Roosevelt defended building the Panama Canal by..

claiming that he had received a mandate from civilization .

American involvement in the affairs of Latin America at the turn of the century..

stemmed from e fact that the countries were always in debt .

The Roosevelt Corollary..

added a new provision to the Monroe Doctrine that was designed to justify U.S. intervention in the affairs of Latin American countries .

Roosevelt promoted what might be called a bad neighbor policy by...

adding the Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine .

The constant intervention in the affairs of Latin America...

left a legacy of bad feelings and distrust of the United States throughout Latin America .

In 1904, the Russo-Japanese War started because...

Russia was seeking ice-free ports in Chinese Manchuria .

Russo became involved when...

Japan secretly asked for his help .

A conference in Portsmouth New York was organized in 1905...

seeking to mediate an end to the War .

As a result of the War,

Japan won a territorial concession on Sakhalin Island .

The Gentleman agreement with Japan...

causeD Japan to halt the flow of laborers to America in return for the repeal of a racist decree issued by the San Francisco school board .

Japanese immigrants first entered the U.S. Territory to... .

work as laborers in the cane fields s of Hawaii

In the root-Takahira agreement of 1908 The United States and Japan...

agreed to respect each other's holdings in the Pacific .

A group of historians known as the "New Left" revisionists argued that...

the United States burst of overseas expansion was designed to create an "informal empire" that would guarantee American dominance of foreign markets and investments .

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