rough endoplasmic reticulum
functions in transport; called "rough" due to the presence of ribosomes on its surface
liquid within cell that contains all of the cell's organelles and serves as the cell's circulatory system
a change in an organism's surroundings that causes a receptor to start impulses in a nerve pathway
anterior portion of the brain consisting of two hemispheres, involved in senses and the thought process
the "little brain" attached to the rear of the brainstem; it helps coordinate voluntary movement and balance
lower or hindmost part of the brain which is in control of most involuntary behaviors, including breathing rate and heart rate
a major part of the central nervous system which conducts sensory and motor nerve impulses to and from the brain
the secretion of an endocrine gland that is transmitted by the blood to the tissue on which it has a specific effect
the system of glands that produce endocrine secretions that help to control bodily metabolic activity
gland in the brain which secretes the hormone melatonin, which is involved in sleep-wake cycles
a neural structure lying below the thalamus; directs eating, drinking, body temperature; helps govern the endocrine system via the pituitary gland, and is linked to emotion
the master gland of the endocrine system, secretes nine hormones which control other glands of the endocrine system
for glands embedded in the thyroid; secretes hormone which controls level of calcium and phosphate (which influence levels of excitability)
a ductless glandular organ at the base of the neck that produces lymphocytes and aids in producing immunity
either of a pair of complex endocrine glands situated near the kidney which secrete adrenaline
a large elongated exocrine/endocrine gland located behind the stomach; secretes insulin and glucagon, which are involved in maintaining blood glucose levels
the system of muscles and tendons and ligaments and bones and joints and associated tissues that move the body and maintain its form
a sheet or band of tough fibrous tissue connecting bones or cartilages or supporting muscles or organs
the exterior protective or supporting structure or shell of many animals (especially invertebrates)
a muscle that is connected at either or both ends to a bone and so move parts of the skeleton
a muscle that contracts without conscious control and found in walls of internal organs such as stomach and intestine and bladder and blood vessels (excluding the heart)
carry impulses from the brain and spinal cord to the muscles and glands; send impulses to the effector in a reflex arc
somatic nervous system
division of nervous system responsible for body movements over which an individual has some conscious awareness or voluntary control
autonomic nervous system
division of nervous system which regulates heart rate and controls the contraction of smooth muscles in the digestive system and in blood vessels
inflammation of the membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord (virus or bacterial infection)
a sudden attack of weakness or paralysis that occurs when blood flow to an area of the brain is interrupted
an acute viral disease marked by inflammation of nerve cells of the brain stem and spinal cord
an enlargement of the thyroid gland that is caused when the thyroid is unable to produce thyroxin due to lack of iodine
the inability of the body to remove excess sugar from the blood and store as glycogen in the liver
can cross cell membranes easily into the cytoplasm and/or nuclei of target cells; produced from cholesterol
proteins, small peptides, and amino acids that cannot pass through membranes of target cells
hormone-like modified fatty acid produced by a wide range of cells; affects only nearby cells and tissue
secreted by thyroid; increases the rate of protein, carbs, and fat metabolism and the rate of cellular respiration; made up of thyrosine and iodine
signals gland secreting hormone to stop production of hormone (ex. hormone that controls glucose levels is released. when glucose levels stabilize, gland producing hormone is signalled to stop)
a protein found in muscle fibers which is involved in contraction and relaxing of muscles; binds to actin
protein found in muscle fibers which is involved in contracton and relaxation of muscles; myosin attaches to it when acetylcholine is present
only temporary, does not last more than 1 month; the body destroys the borrowed immunity
tiny, thin-walled blood vessels that allow the exchange of gases and nutrients between the blood and the cells of the body
a specialized protein made by the body to fight off future infections from a disease-causing organism
substance prepared from killed or weakened pathogens introduced into a body to produce immunity
guards the opening between the left atrium and the left ventricle and prevents the blood in the ventricle from returning to the atrium
closes when the right ventricle contracts, allowing blood flow into the lungs and prevent backflow into the right atrium
carried by pulmonary circulation and enters through the right atrium of the heart from the lungs
Circulation of blood throughout the body through arteries, arterioles, capillaries, and veins to deliver oxygen and nutrients to body tissues
Circulation of blood from the pulmonary artery through the vessels in the lungs and back to the heart via the pulmonary vein, providing for the exchange of gases
Circulation of blood through the coronary blood vessels to deliver oxygen and nutrients to the heart muscle tissue
A valve located at the two exits of the heart, where the aorta leaves the left ventricle and the pulmonary artery leaves the right ventricle.
A family of proteins produced by the T cells whose specialty is fighting viruses by slowing or stopping their multiplication
A protective response of tissues affected by disease or injury, characterized by redness, swelling, and pain
-The virus that causes acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)
-Human Immunodeficiency Virus
-Replicates and kills T-Cells
A type of lymphocyte that can recognize (bind to) an antigen and secrete an antibody specific for that antigen. When activated by binding to an antigen, B cells mature into plasma cells (that secreted antibody) and memory cells (that patrol the body for future encounters with that antigen). - must be activated by Helper T cell also, though.
the clear fluid that bathes each cell and transfers needed substances and wastes back and forth between the blood and the cells. Lymph also plays a role in immunity.
Two structures located on each side of the lumbar region that filter blood and secrete impurities, forming urine.
two spongy organs, located in the thoracic cavity enclosed by the diaphragm and rib cage, responsible for respiration
integumentary system protective covering for body, prevents bacteria etc entering, prevents excess water leaving, protects organs from injury, sensory system thru nerves, regulates body temp when blood vessels dialate or contrict moving bood & heat to or from surface
Loop of Henle
The long hairpin turn, with a descending and ascending limb, of the renal tubule in the vertebrate kidney; functions in water and salt reabsorption.
cup-shaped structure of the nephron of a kidney which encloses the glomerulus and which filtration takes place.
The location in the kidney where processed filtrate, called urine, is collected from the renal tubules.
The breakdown of food into smaller chemical compounds with the use of enzymes and other substances.
-Where food enters the Dig. Sys.
-Carbs are broken down with salivary amylase.
-Food is separated into smaller pieces by teeth.
A muscular organ with folds (rugae) that digests chemically with the enzymes: pepsin, renin, and lipase, and the acid HCl. It also "pummels" the food with its muscular walls in MECHANICAL DIGESTION.
-A long tube where carbs, proteins, and lipids are digested with amylase, protease, lipase and bile.
-Where the most DIGESTION takes place.
-Where nutrients are absorbed into the blood stream.
-Contains VILLI and folds that increase the surface area for more nutrient DIGESTION.
-Separated into 3 sections: the duodenum, jejunim, and ileum.
-Produces bile and sends it to the GALL BLADDER.
-Produces uric acid/urea and sends it to the KIDNEYS.
-Recycles worn out red blood cells.
-Carries out DEAMINATION.
An organ that stores bile and sends it to the upper part of the SMALL INTESTINE (duodenum) for the process of EMULSIFICATION.
Secretes pancreatic juice, which contains: amylase, protease, lipase, and sodium bicarbonate,into the upper part of the SMALL INTESTINE.
The reabsorption of water in the food mass occurs here. Wastes, or undigestible and insoluble materials are produced for removal.
A muscle that pushes the bolus into the ESOPHAGUS. Has 4 different types of taste buds: salty, sweet, sour, and bitter.
Finger-like projections in the SMALL INTESTINE that: have a single layer of cells, increase the surface area and increase ABSORPTION.
The process in which food is broken down outside the cells in a digestive tract.
Palisades layer (mesophyll)
the part of the leaf that absorbs light with chloroplasts for photosynthesis; it is tighter and more dense than the spongy layer
Spongy layer (mesophyll)
the part of the leaf where most photosynthesis occurs; it is "spongy" and less dense due to the gasses that pass in and out of the leaf as a result of photosynthesis and respiration
the opening in the lower epidermis through which gases (oxygen, carbon dioxide, water vapor) pass through; controled by the two guard cells surrounding it
the part of the plant below ground that takes in water and nutrients and pass them along to the stem; also anchors plant in the ground; food is often stored in them as well
the part of the root for storing food; they are irregularly shaped cells in between the epidermis and the endodermis
the "very fine hair-like structures" jutting out from the epidermis (root); each is one cell with a cell wall made of cellulose
Fibrous root system
a root system consisting of many small roots; secondary roots can be as big as the primary root
a root system in which the primary root is the largest in the root system; when the primary root grows quickly
stems that are made of wood and are more firm; plants with these stems tend to live longer than two years