pattern of social, political and economic relationships and institutions htat existed in Europe before the French Revolution; characterized by absolute monarchies, growing bureaucracies, aristocratically led armies, agriculture dominance, food shortages, slow transportation, low level of iron production, unsophisticated financial institutions, competitive commercial overseas empirees, and people who considered themselves as a part of a group, not as individuals
First, Second and Third Estates
First and Second consisted of clergy and nobility. Third consisted of merchants, artisans, and peasants.
tax on property and land, provided permanent income for French royal government
educated, middle class of france; provided force behind the Revolution
13 law courts who were frustrated at reform's efforts. 18th century: defenders of "liberty" against the monarchy; having their own interests leads them to block new taxes
Marquis de Lafayette
A wealthy French nobleman, nicknamed "French Gamecock", made major general of colonial army, got commission on part of his family.
Wrote an essay called "What is the 3rd estate" Argued that lower classes were more important than the nobles and the government should be responsible to the people.
French Revolutionary assembly (1789-1791). Called first as the Estates General, the three estates came together and demanded radical change. It passed the Declaration of the Rights of Man in 1789.
Tennis Court Oath
vow by members of the 3rd estate not to disband until a constitution was written
Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen
This was the new constitution that the National Assembly wrote that gave all citizens free expression of thoughts and opinions and guaranteed equality before the law
Storming of the Bastille
Paris-July 14, 1789~the medieval fortress and prison known as the Bastille contained only seven prisoners, its fall was the flashpoint of the French Revolution and it subsequently become an icon of the French Republic
Olympe de Gouges
A proponent of democracy, she demanded the same rights for French women that French men were demanding for themselves. In her Declaration of the Rights of Woman and the Female Citizen (1791), she challenged the practice of male authority and the notion of male-female inequality. She lost her life to the guillotine due to her revolutionary ideas.
Civil Constitution of the Clergy
A body of legislation passed in July 1790 that redefined the relationship between the clergy and the state in France. It allowed for the confiscation of church property formerly used to support the clergy, replacing it with a guarantee of state salaries for clergymen instead. It also stipulated that parish priests and bishops be elected just like public officials. The National Assembly attempted to enforce it by requiring the clergy to take an oath, divided public opinion of the French Revolution (1789-99) and galvanized religious opposition.
Radical republicans during the French Revolution. They were led by Maximilien Robespierre from 1793 to 1794.
Escape to Varennes
forced to return to Paris and upset with revolutionary events, King Louis XVI tried to flee France in 1791 and almost succeeded before being captured at Varennes; discredited him and lost the peoples trust (formerly, politicians were unified on the basis of their trust for the king). Later used as evidence of treason to convict and execute the king.
Declaration of Pillnitz
afraid that other countries would follow France's lead and begin revolutions, Emperor Leopold II of Austria and King Frederick William II of Prussia issued this declaration in August 27, 1791, inviting other European monarchs to intervene on behalf of Louis XVI if his monarchy was threatened.
The small government in Paris who wanted to resist the conservative leaders of France and tried to form their own government
in the French Revolution, a radical group made up of Parisian wage-earners, and small shopkeepers who wanted a greater voice in government, lower prices, and an end of food shortages
the newly appointed minister of justice who led the sans-culottes in revenge on those who had aided the king and resisted the popular will.
The third estate of the Estates General -broke from the Estates because they wanted the Estates to sit as a committee and not as segregated groups.
Girondins and the Mountain
represented the provinces and wanted to keep the king alive; lost to the Mountain, who represented Paris and condemned Louise XVI to death in 1793 by a very narrow margin
a counter-revolution that was largely inspired by anger toward the restrictions placed on the church
Committee of Public Safety
The leaders under Robespierre who organized the defenses of France, conducted foreign policy, and centralized authority during the period 1792-1795.
Young provincial lawyer who led the most radical phases of the French Revolution. His execution ended the Reign of Terror.
Reign of Terror
the historic period (1793-94) during the French Revolution when thousands were executed
Law of General Maximum
Law that set price controls on goods; government was unable to enforce them so they ultimately failed
was an important leader of the Haïtian Revolution and the first leader of a free Haiti. In a long struggle again the institution of slavery, he led the blacks to victory over the whites and free coloreds and secured native control over the colony in 1797, calling himself a dictator.
A reaction against the violence of the Reign of Terror after Robespierre was executed ( named after month of Thermidor); Terror began to decline and National Convention curtailed power of Committee of Public Safety
Group of five men who served as liaisons between Robespierre and the Assembly. Overthrown by Napoleon.
Overthrew French Directory in 1799 and became emperor of the French in 1804. Failed to defeat Great Britain and abdicated in 1814. Returned to power briefly in 1815 but was defeated and died in exile.
Italian and Egyptian campaigns
Napoleon was made commander of French army in Italy and he influenced them with his intelligence and confidence;after returning back to France, he tried to take Britain by taking Egypt but his supplies were cut off;he then abandoned his army and took part in a coup d'etat that led to his dictatorship
Concordat & Napoleonic Code
This was the civil code put out by Napoleon that granted equality of all male citizens before the law and granted absolute security of wealth and private property. Napoleon also secured this by creating the Bank of France which loyally served the interests of both the state and the financial oligarchy
Austerlitz and Trafalgar
Britain's Admiral Nelson destroyed the combined French and Spanish navies. Nelson was killed but invasion of Britain now became impossible.
army of 500,000 men made by Napoleon to beat Alexander I when he refused to obey the Continental System
Elba and Saint Helena
South Atlantic island. Napoleon's final home after the Battle of Waterloo.
Battle of Waterloo
This was the battle that Napoleon lost after his return from Elba that ended his reign as French ruler
Jean Paul Marat
French revolutionary leader (born in Switzerland) who was a leader in overthrowing the Girondists and was stabbed to death in his bath by Charlotte Corday (1743-1793)
French revolutionary heroine (a Girondist) who assassinated Marat (1768-1793)
French painter known for his classicism and his commitment to the ideals of the French Revolution. His works include The Oath of the Horatii (17850 and The Death of Marat (1793).
Arthur Wellesley, Duke of Wellington
He served in the British Army, leading the British in victory against Napoleon in the Peninsular Wars. Later during the 100 days he led the Allied forces in defeating Napoleon's forces at the Battle of Waterloo. He also became Prime Minister of the United Kingdom as a Tory.
Women's March on Versailles
Thousands of women stormed Versailles and demanded the king and his family go back to Paris, which they unhappily did. In Paris, they remained prisoners for the next couple of years
Death of Louis XVI
- mountains condemned him to death and he
-he died on janurary 21, 1793
Napoleon's coup d'etat
(Urged by Abbe Sieyes) He gained political power, and he and his wife formed connections in gov't, making him head of the military. The Directory was then dissolved, and Napoleon became the first of 3 consuls of the French Republic (voted by people; had all power)
Napoleon's Russian Retreat
Bonaparte left the army on 5 December to return to Paris where a coup had been foiled and to raise another army. His troops dragged themselves on and on 7 December finally crossed the Niemen out of Russian territory. They had survived, but only 20,000 of them.