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feudalism, the Church, rise of cities

feudalism

a system in which land was owned by kings or lords but held by vassals in return for their loyalty

Middle Ages

the years between ancient times and modern times

medieval

referring to the Middle Ages

manor

a large estate, often including farms and a village, ruled by a lord

serf

a farm worker considered part of the manor on which he or she worked

knight

soldier who received honor and land in exchange for serving his lord

Charlemagne

king of the Franks

Charlemagne

ruler who spread the Christian religion, established schools, and united Western Europe

Vikings

skilled sailors and tough warriors who attacked European towns

lords

owned or managed land who treated their vassals with honor

fief

a share of land given to vassals

king

head of the nobles who owned land/person the lords and vassals were loyal to

peasant

poor people who made their living as farmers and laborers

vassals

men who promised to raise and lead armies that would fight for their lord

noblewomen

managed the household, performed necessary medical tasks, and supervised servants

clergy

people with the authority to perform religious services

gothic

referst to a style of architecture containing stained-glass windows, sculptures, and masses of stonework

excommunication

to be expelled from membership in the Church and participation in Church life

Bubonic plague

another name for the Black Death

guild

an organization that included all the people who practiced a certain trade or craft

journeyman

craftsmen earned this title after finishing an apprenticeship and before becoming a guild member

apprentice

an unpaid person training in a craft or trade

chivalry

the code of honorable conduct by which knights were supposed to live

scholasticism

a system using reason to support Christian beliefs

monasticism

a form of religious life where monks live in monasteries

troubadour

a traveling poet and musician of the Middle Ages

"the Church"

this organization had power in every kingdom, every fief, and every village, and was run by Catholic clergy

middle class

a status of people between nobles and peasants who were merchants, traders, and craft workers

cathedral

huge medieval church which served as a house of worship, a gathering place, and even as a religious school

Black Death

a disease that wiped out one-third of Europe's population between 1347 and 1351.

Black Death

spread by fleas from infected rats

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