Chapter 10: Flowering of Traditional China

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What religion did the silk road boost during the first and second century?

Buddhism was boosted along the silk road.

What followed the collapse of the Han dynasty?

An extended period of civil war.

Who founded the Sui dynasty?

Yang Jain

What did the Sui dynasty establish as a unifying force in China?

The religion of Buddhism

This was completed under the Sui dynasty and connected the Yellow and Yangtze rivers.

Construction of the Grand Canal

Sui policies affected what part of China and how?

They helped the lower parts of the Yangtze region and made it become a major part of Chinas economy.

Who was Yang Jain's successor?

His son, Yangdi.

What led to Yangdi to be assassinated?

A series of defeats, his final one with him returning home from a defeat in Korea.

Who took over after the assassination of Yangdi and created the Tang Dynasty?

One of his generals.

Who was the first leader of the Tang Dynasty?

Li Yuan

Who was Li Yuan succeeded by?

His son, Li Shimin.

THe Tang pacified the ________ region of china and called it ______, or "New Region".

Northwest and Xinjiang

What did the Tang create?

A department of state affairs.

What nomadic group caused problems for the Tang.

Kirghiz (A Turkish nomadic group)

Who was Yang Guifei?

Women who was a concubines of the emperor and started a rebellion. (Side note: SHE WAS FLUFFY!)

True or False: The Tang recovered from the rebellion of Yang Guifei.

False

Who was the founder of the Song dynasty?

Song Taizu

What part of China could Song Taizu not recapture.

He was not able to recapture the Northwest part of China from the Khitin people.

Under what Dynasty did the Civil service exam start?

The Song dynasty.

(Side Note: There is going to be a short answer on the Civil serive exam, including all of it's levels and what it meant for the people in ancient China.)

What was one problem that the Song could not overcome with the civil service exam?

Politicians using power to illegally help relatives.

What level did most people stop at and what did they do?

Most people stopped at the first level and went on to become local bureaucrats and teachers of next generation test takers.

Song Taizu was not able to recapture the northwest part of China from the _______ people.

Khitan

Who did the Song dynasty join forces with? And why was it a mistake?

The Mongols. A mistake because they caused their fall and took power.

Song local government, permitted ______ to administer themselves.

Villages

Song local government gave responsibilities to...?

The village council of elders.

In Song government, How did local magistrates gain money?

By charging people for services for which they had already paid.

The __________ monopolized certain _______ manufacturing

1.Central government, 2. Commodity

_____________ increased the ____________ of the economy.

1.Technological advances 2. Scope and wealth.

The Tang dynasty allied with who to dominante trade on the silk road?

The Uighurs

The _________ maintained the foundation of a working trade relationship between the Chineseand foreign merchants and rulers.

Tribute system.

Why did the land gentry class assume political and social dominanace?

Because of the increase in trade?

what improved communication?

block printing?

Moral foundation was? Life was centered around? Most occupants were???

1. Filial Piety 2. the Local village. 3. Farmers.

Who was the empress of china in 690, what did she do?

Wu Zhao, and she made significant contributions to the civil service Exam.

Who wasthe founder of the Mongol empire? And, who was his grandson?

Genghis Kahn, and Kublai Khan was his grandson.

What did Kublai Khan do when he completed his Song dynasty conquest?

He moved the capital of China to Khanbaliq.

What did Mongol rule make use of?

Chinese institutions of governing.

Why were the Mongols able to maintain control of China for an extended period?

Their commercial (business) policies were conductive to prosperity.

What are the reasons for the end of Mongol rule?

1.Excessive military spending. 2. Inadequate tax revenues. 3. Internal strife. 4. Growing famine. 5. Inferior leaders after Kublai Khan.

What did indian merchants bring to India? And, What sect. stressed the role of devotion?

Buddhism, and the Pure Land Sect.

What philosophies were competing and hwo was victorious and why?

Buddhism, Daoism, and Confucianism were competeing. And confucianism was victorious, because it was aligned with the social needs such as hard work and filial piety.

What was the purpose of the development of "Neo-Confucianism"

To provide a set of beliefs about the universe that were brought by Daoism and Buddhism. They then aligned these with the Confucian value system.

Who founded "Neo0Confucianism" & "School of mind" and what "the school of mind"'s teachings?

Neo-confucianism-Zhu Xi School of Mind-Wang Yangming. It taught that the right way to transcend to the material world was to understand yourself.

________ was the most effective form of literature from the ______ to the _______ dynasties.

1. Poetry. 2. Tang . 3. Ming.

_________ was a major poet and he had a carefree attitude towards life (Daoist)

Li Bo.

Art was influenced by...

Buddhism and Daoism.

What did the Ming dynasty maintain?

An organized governing bureaucracy that wa based on traditional Confucian entities.

What did the Ming dynasty establish?

A formal 3 level system for the Civil Service Exam.

Also, The Ming dynasty divided the empire into...? and they strengthened?

Provinces, districts, and countries. Strengthened the 'Great Wall".

What happened with the Ming and it's internal strife?

Ruling establishment resulted in China's withdrawl from direct participation in world trade.

What happened to the portugese arrived in China, and what happened later.

FIRST, THEY were expelled but finally (later) through negotiations received the tiny territory of Macao.

When and what caused the Mings collapse?

In the 16th Century, because a series of weak rulers, concentration of land ownership, peasant rebellion, and unrest on the northern fronteir.

___________, an angry postal worker, led a peasant revolt that brought down the Ming dynasty and paved the way for the Manchus, a fronteir tribe to take over.

Li Zicheng.

Who was more successful the Manchus or Mongols?

Manchus

WHo established andwas the first major ruler of the Qing dynasty?

Established- The Manchus First Major Ruler- Kangxi

The ______ converted many people by accomodating Chinese _________?

1. Jesuits 2. religion beliefs

What did the pope forbid?

Ancestor worship.

The Qing created what kind of system?

"Two pronged"

The two pronged Consisted of..

1. Manchu nobels retaining their arisocratic priviliges while their economic base was covered by large land-holdings. 2. Other Manchus were given farmland and organized military units called "bannerman" They were the primary fighting source.

What did the Qing government create, and what was it?

A dyarchy- A system that had an even number of administrative positions for Chinese and Manchus.

In Qing government, Why was the civil service exam becoming less equitable?

People were buying their degrees.

Why did the Qing fall?

The official, Heshen Gave money to peopleand not military. Also their were territory problems as well.

What was the treaty called with Russia?

The "Nerchinsk" treaty.

How fast and When did the population reach 30,000,000?

Fast from 1600-1800, and reached 30,000,000 by 1800.

Why did The population grow?

Grew because oF; Relative peace prevailed in the early Qing. 2. New rops were introduced from "the new world." 3. Introduction of the development of faster growing SE asian rice into Chia. 4. The political calmness of China in the 17th & 18th Cent.

In ChineseDaily life, where were clans prevalent?

In the south.

What about women Daily life?

Women could be left if they did not bare a son, and some young girls were killed in Famine periods.

Why was love seen as a problem?

Because it diverted people from their duties to the larger family.

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