Located in the nucleus, they are made of DNA and protein.
characteristic that is inherited; can be either dominant or recessive
They are a section of DNA which codes for making a particular protein. They determine your characteristics.
Different variations of a gene. (e.g. F, f)
An allele that is always expressed (shown) if it is part of the genotype. (E.g. F)
An allele that is ONLY expressed (shown) if two are present (e.g. ff)
Deoxyribonucleic acid - carries the instructions for making proteins.
A cell which has two of each kind of chromosome.
A cell which has only one of each kind of chromosome (e.g. egg or sperm).
A cell that has the potential to become any one of a variety of types of cells
These are chromosomes which carry genes for the same characteristics in the same place.
Having two of the same alleles for a gene (e.g. ff, FF)
Having two different alleles for a gene (e.g. Ff)
The alleles that you have. (e.g. Ff, ff, FF)
The features you have which depend on your genotype. (E.g. blonde or black hair)
When neither of the alleles is dominant or recessive but both have an effect on the phenotype of a heterozygous organism. (E.g. a red and white carnation cross pollinate to produce a pink carnation)
Homozygous - parents that always produce offspring with the same characteristic as themselves.
A condition where a person has an extra copy of Chromosome 21.
When there is a problem in meiosis or in the copying of the DNA in cells, it results in mutations → the genetic code is changed.
A group of genetically identical organisms
The building blocks of proteins
Caused by an unusual protein that makes too much mucus in the lungs.
The average period , considered about 30 years, during which children are born, grow up, become adults and start to have own children
Passing on of characteristics from parent to offspring
a molecule that is made up of amino acids and that is needed to build and repair body structures and to regulate processes in the body.
a specific sequence of three adjacent bases on a strand of DNA or RNA that provides genetic code information for a particular amino acid
The chemicals that make up the rungs of the DNA ladder - adenine, thymine, guanine, cytosine
The building block of a nucleic acid, consisting of a five-carbon sugar covalently bonded to a nitrogenous base and a phosphate group.
Twisted ladder shape of DNA, formed by two nucleotide strands twisted around each other
agents, such as chemicals or radiation, that damage or alter genetic material (DNA) in cells
conversion of the information encoded in a gene first into messenger RNA and then to a protein
(genetics) the process whereby DNA makes a copy of itself before cell division
Reproductive cells, called ova and sperm)
The study of heredity