led a Filipino insurrection against the Spanish in 1896 and assisted the U.S. invasion. He served as leader of the provisional government but was removed by the U.S. because he wanted to make the Philippines independent before the U.S. felt it was ready for independence.
The critics of imperialism were many and influential. Forming the _____________________, they believed that every country captured by the U.S. had the same rights under the Constitution and the Declaration of Independence.
an armed conflict between a group of Filipino revolutionaries and the United States which arose from the struggle of the First Philippine Republic to gain independence following annexation by the United States
Clayton-Bulwer Treaty (1850)
1850 - Treaty between U.S. and Great Britain agreeing that neither country would try to obtain exclusive rights to a canal across the Isthmus of Panama. Abrogated by the U.S. in 1881.
Hay-Pauncefote Treaty (1901)
1901 - Great Britain recognized U.S. Sphere of Influence over the Panama canal zone provided the canal itself remained neutral. U.S. given full control over construction and management of the canal.
The Isthmus of Panama had been part of Columbia. U.S. tried to negotiate with Columbia to build the Panama Canal. Columbia refused, so U.S. encouraged Panama to revolt. Example of Big Stick diplomacy.
1903 - U.S. guaranteed the independence of the newly-created Republic of Panama.
U.S. would act as international policemen. An addition to the Monroe Doctrine.
Panama Canal Zone
U.S. territory around the Panama Canal
Venezuelan crisis (1902)
1902 - England, Germany and Italy had blockaded Venezuelan ports because Latin American countries failed to make payments on debts owed to foreign banks. U.S. invoked the Monroe Doctrine and pressured the European powers to back off.
Foraker Act (1900)
established civilian (limited popular) government on the island of Puerto Rico, which had been newly acquired by the United States as a result of the Spanish-American War
Jones Act (1917)
was passed by the United States to regulate trade in Puerto Rico. It established the Sea Land service to prevent carriers and shippers from using unfair pricing practices. Its establishment encouraged parallel pricing for all carriers.
"Spheres of Influence" and the Open Door policy
Region in which political and economic control is exerted by on European nation to the exclusion of all others. _____________ appeared primarily in the East, and also in Africa. Hay sent imperialist nations a note asking them to offer assurance that they would respect the principle of equal trade opportunities, specifically in the China market.
1900 - a secret Chinese society called the ______ because their symbol was a fist revolted against foreigners in their midst and laid siege to foreign legislations in Beijing.
Russo-Japanese War, Treaty of Portsmouth
Japan had attacked the Russian Pacific fleet over Russia's refusal to withdraw its troops from Mancharia after the Boxer Rebellion (1904-1905) War fought mainly in Korea. Japan victorious, the U.S. mediated the end of the war. Negotiating the treaty in the U.S. increased U.S. prestige. Roosevelt received a Nobel Peace Prize for the mediation.
In 1907 Theodore Roosevelt arranged with Japan that Japan would voluntarily restrict the emmigration of its nationals to the U.S.
1908 - Japan / U.S. agreement in which both nations agreed to respect each other's territories in the Pacific and to uphold the Open Door policy in China.
"Great White Fleet"
1907-1909 - Roosevelt sent the Navy on a world tour to show the world the U.S. naval power. Also to pressure Japan into the "Gentlemen's Agreement."
"Big Stick" diplomacy
Roosevelt said, "walk softly and carry a ________." In international affairs, ask first but bring along a big army to help convince them. Threaten to use force, act as international policemen. It was his foreign policy in Latin America.
Secretary of State John Hay
September, 1899 - Secretary of State under TR, ______ sent imperialist nations a note asking them to offer assurance that they would respect the principle of equal trade opportunities, specifically in the China market.
Using the power of the U.S. economy to accomplish diplomatic goals. Taft and Knox came up with it to further foreign policy in the U.S. in 1909-1913 under the Roosevelt Corollary. It was meant to avoid military intervention by giving foreign countries monetary aid.
"Missionary" or "Moral" Diplomacy
Woodrow Wilson's idea of the United States' ___________________ to deny recognition to any Latin American government that was viewed as hostile to American interests. This was the first time America had failed to recognize any government, besides the confederacy. It was an expansion of President James Monroe's 1823 Monroe Doctrine.
Diaz was ruler of Mexico for 34 years, and caused much terror and bloodshed. Many people fled to the U.S. to plan a revolution. Huerta, in 1913, overthrew Diaz as dictator and had him murdered. Carranza was the leader of the forces against Huerta. The ____________________ was an unstable situation that led to distrust between the U.S. and Mexico.
During the political turmoil of Mexico in 1916, bandit ________________________ murdered 16 Americans, then burned down Columbus in New Mexico
General John Pershing
With the U.S. outraged, ___________________ was sent with 12,000 troops to catch Villa with no avail. Massive US response angered some Mexicans and led to hostilities.
purpose of the conference was to find an issue to the First Moroccan Crisis between France and Germany, which arose as Germany attempted to prevent France from establishing a protectorate over Morocco.