"Peace without Victory"
Wilson's plan that he presented in a speech before a joint session of congress in January 1917, it called for postwar order in which the U.S. would help maintain peace through a permanent league of nations, end to hostilities without placing blame
Armed Ship Bill
would have authorized the President to arm merchant vessels, shut down by congress because of isolationism, they didn't want to become involved in the war.
Written by Arthur Zimmerman, a German foreign secretary. In this note he had secretly proposed a German- Mexican alliance. He tempted Mexico with the ideas of recovering Texas, Arizona, and New Mexico. The note was intercepted on March 1, 1917 by the U.S. government. This was a major factor that led us into WWI.
Unrestricted Submarine Warfare
Sinking ships without warning. German's sunk the British passenger ship Lusitania May 1915. 1200 killed included 130 Americans, Germany had advertised would be hit. Wilson demanded reparations and apology. Germans said Lusitania was armed (false) and carrying military cargo (true, British was using civilians to shield war cargo). Germany then sank several more boats that happened into the war zone. America join war.
First woman to serve in Congress. Suffragist and pacifist, voted against US involvement in WWI and WWII.
War to make the world safe for democracy
One of Wilson's reasons that he used to gain the peoples' support. Also said the it was a "war to end all wars."
the war aims outlined by President Wilson in 1918, which he believed would promote lasting peace; called for self-determination, freedom of the seas (2nd), free trade, end to secret treaties (1st), removal of economic barriers (3rd), reduction of arms and a League of Nations (14th).
Committee Of Public Information
Created in 1917 by Woodrow Wilson, headed by George Creel. The purpose of this committee was to mobilize people's minds for war, both in America and abroad. Tried to get the entire U.S. public to support U.S. involvement in WWI. Creel's organization, employed some 150,000 workers at home and oversees. He proved that words were indeed weapons.
War Industry Board
The works of all these boards was coordinated by the government's central way agency, the War Industries Board (WIB). Its director, Wall Street investor Bernard Baruch, had overall responsibility for allocating scarce materials, establishing production priorities, and setting prices.
Agency, headed by Hebert Hoover, to encourage farmers to produce more and to persuade the public to eat less; goal was to assure enough food was available for the troops; encourages "Wheatless Wednesdays" and "Meatless Tuesdays"
National War Labor Board
Board created to ensure the production of vital war materials. Helped resolve labor disputes that might slow down war production. Headed by William Howard Taft.
(WW) , Harry Garfield, Like the Food Administration, the Fuel Administration encouraged Americans to save fuel with "Heatless Mondays" and "Gasless Sundays". The actions helped create a sum of $21 billion to pay for the war.
Liberty/Victory Loan Drives
a major part of the money to finance American's war effort.
draft that require registration for all men 15-45, no substitution. Only men exempted were the skilled industrial workers, i.e. ship builders.
Liberty Cabbage/Liberty Steak
substitutes for German words, sauerkraut,hamburger. Show the Anti-German feelings of the US populous and their acceptance of Creel's propaganda for the war.
what Hoover encouraged US citizens to plant to raise their own vegetables in order to leave more for the troops.
Industrial Workers of the World
Also known as "Wobblies" (IWW), a more radical labor organization that was against war. Goal was to organize all workers into one union to overthrow Capitalism. Leader William D. Hagwood and 99 of associates were convicted under the Espionage Act 1918.
Eugene V. Debs
Socialist leader against WWI. Convicted under the Sedition Act 1918, sentenced to 10 years in Federal Penitentiary. Later pardoned in 1921.
Espionage Act 1918
Brought forth under the Wilson administration, they stated that any treacherous act or draft dodging was forbidden, outlawed disgracing the government, the Constitution, or military uniforms, and forbade aiding the enemy.
Council of National Defense
Civilian council 1915 that studied problems of economic mobilization, one of Wilson's mild preparedness measures before WWI
Prohibited the manufacture, sale, and distribution of alcoholic beverages (temporarily)
Amendment to the U.S. Constitution (1920) extended the right to vote to women in federal or state elections.
Treaty of Versailles
Created by the leaders victorious allies Nations 1919: France, Britain, US, and signed by Germany to help stop WWI. The treaty 1)stripped Germany of all Army, Navy, Air force. 2) Germany had to repair war damages(33 billion) 3) Germany had to acknowledge guilt for causing WWI 4) Germany could not manufacture any weapons.
Woodrow Wilson (US president), Georges Clemenceau (french premier), David Lloyd George (British prime minister), Vittorio Orlando (Italian prime minister). The Big Four were the four most important leaders, and the most important ones at the Paris Peace Conference.
Senator Henry Cabot Lodge,would accept Treaty of Versailles if "republicanized" by adding 14 reservations, changes, safeguarding US under Monroe Doctrine to protect US sovereignty
This part of the Versailles Treaty morally bound the U. S. to aid any member of the League of Nations that experienced any external aggression.
League of Nations
One of Wilson's Fourteen Points, this was a proposal for an international organization which would have the goal of maintaining world peace. Founded in 1919 to promote world peace and cooperation but greatly weakened by the refusal of the United States to join. It proved ineffectual in stopping aggression by Italy, Japan, and Germany in the 1930s.
led a group of senators, the Irreconcilables, who were irreconcilably opposed to joining the League of Nations; he promoted ideals of traditional isolationism and believed the League was "an entangling foreign alliance."
These were Republicans who wanted no part with the League of Nations. They were a burden to the vote on the League of Nations and had a part in its failure to pass.
persons who believe that their own country should not become involved in relations with other nations, especially alliances. Opposed to Article X of the League of Nations.