the process of placing a two or three dimensional representation of the proposed space on paper.
the placement of zones on paper according to function. (size and shape determination)
this step takes several overlays (laying of tracing paper over the previous graphic to refine), can be accomplished through CADD software
Perspective sketches and renderings
three dimensional pencil, pen, full color representation of proposed space or how a portion of the interior will appear upon completion
the finished product that indicates specific and exact placement of walls and systems within the home. drawn to scale, consist of symbols that make the plan understandable.
three dimensional space or the space we walk through. determined by width x length x height.
Breakdown for square footage (80% for living, 10% for halls and 10% for storage)
general rule of thumb for square footage in homes. 80% living, 10% hall, 10% storage.
400-500 square feet per person for comfortable living
psychological studies demonstrates overcrowding leads to emotional consequences, physical limitations. sq feet per person varies per society. US it is 400-500 sq ft is generally the minimum for comfortable living standards
Shaping the space
the shape has horizontal and vertical components. Angled, curved, half walls, cut out sections can add interest and dimension to the room. When designing a home design the interior first then the exterior or compromise somewhat with limitations. PAGE 172
Site, orientation and climate
Site needs to be considered, things such as: direction of breeze in seasons, slope, vegetation, nearby bldgs, property values. Orientation or direction the site faces is important. climate needs to be considered for extreme heat or cold in planning a home as well.
Floor plan symbols (general definition only)
symbols for windows, doors, plumbing fixtures, appliances, walls, stairs, mechanical equipment. number and types vary.
Closed floor plan
Floor plans with many rooms that are totally private from other rooms, having solid walls and accessed only through a door that may also close.
Open floor plan
A concept in interior and architectural plannin where aeas are left open, without wall divisions. The open areas can be used in a flexible manner to accommodate varying functions
Rambler or ranch home
A one story detached hime with or without a basement. The social, work, and private zones are located on the main floor
One-and-one-half story plan
A plan with bedrooms up-stairs inside the attic, usually with dormer windows. THe main floor contains the living and dining rooms, kitchen, bath or half-bath, and perhaps a den or family room and/or perhaps a master bedroom
A plan similar to the one-and-one half story except that the roof line begins above the second floor, allowing full height ceilings. There is usually a full or hartial hight attic above the second floor.
Split entry or raised ranch
A two-level home in which the entry is located in the center, and the person entering walks upstairs to the kitchen/living/dining areas and the bedroom/bath areas, and downstairs to the family room, extra bedrooms, and storage areas. Has a raised basement.
A residential building divided into apartments or sharing walls with adjoining buildings designed for occupancy by more than one family
Multiplex units (duplex, triplex, fourplex, quadplex)
Amall apartment buildings. A two unit building is a duplex, three unit triplex...Each unit may have a separate or shared entrance
Unit in a separate dwelling in a portion of a home, such as the basement or over the garage
Town houses, row houses or brownstones
Another term for a dwelling that is narrow, on or two rooms wide, and two or three stories hight. It shares walls with one or two similar town houses, and one roof spans all the units
Considerations for buying an existing home
Location, meets needs, low upkeep, warranties, structural soundness, no defects, and use of online real estate services
Computer-aided drafting (or design) CAD, CADD
computer software used to draw and arrange a proposed interior space
Construction documents, working drawings or blueprints
sets of plans that specify designs, materials, and dimensions to guide each subcontractor.
drawn to scale; shows the layout of the rooms. used for estimating costs, and construction of the building
the exterior views of each side of the buildings in flat drawings. Helps us to judge the building style aesthetics
show the situation of the building on the land, legal boundaries, slope, references points, water, sewer, and electrical system grids.
indicate necessary details on footings, anchor bolts, breaks in walls, and drains. used to estimate labor and materials.
give projections of the building from the lowest level up to the roof. they show sections, key connections, and the layout of the floors and roof, with info on columns, beams, and joists.
these show a building's mechanical systems (HVAC, plumbing, electrical, lighting, and cable). Also shows layout for fire protection, security, and communication systems.
show types of cabinets and millwork, and other special interior features. used to obtain bids and construct the features.
enlargements of construction components where clarification or additional information is needed (ie: custom window arrangement to be framed)
written documents that describe structural or finish materials or custom work -- what is needed, where it is to be located, what quality and craftsmanship level is desired, how it is to be assembled, and any other special considerations needed for correct construction.
Subcontract: the agreement for specialized work performed by a persona or company and specified for a building's construction or finish work. Subcontractor:take information from the blueprints, determine how much labor and materials are required for their specialty (plumbing, roofing, etc), and produce a bid or estimate of the job.
Interior design package
materials and furnishings installed when a building's construction is complete (ie: carpeting, furniture, window treatments)
Doing the work: architect
Oversees a building project and is responsible to hire the general contractor and make sure everything is done perfectly. Architect is the only person the home owner deals with -- saves a lot of frustration. Fee based on percentage of finished building costs.
Home builder, general contractor or remodeler
holds a state=issued general contractor's license and hires subcontractors to build each phase of the building, sometimes participates in personally in the building process. Oversees all the work and works directly with the subcontractor, client, and building inspectors.
Hiring subcontractors yourself
Only attempt if you have some background knowledge or experience. Subcontractors (painters, carpenters, installers, etc) may be more used to working for a general contractor and deem your project less important in quality and reliability. Takes time, effort, and diligence but can pay off.
ideal for people with skills, tools, time, vision, support of family members. Better for smaller remodeling jobs. Fixing a botched job is typically more expensive than hiring a professional in the first place.
Foundation (cement, concrete, reinforced concrete/rebar, flatwork)
Foundations: the concrete block or poured concrete walls of basement or sublevel. Cement: dry mixture of lime, silica, alumina, and other materials used to bring nonadhesive materials together into a strong, cohesive unit. Concrete:the building material made by mixing cement and a mineral aggregate (gravel) with sufficient water to cause the cement to set into a hard mass. Reinforced concrete: has rebar (strong, bendable steel bars) or wire mesh set into the wet mixture before it is dried to give structural strength and prevent cracking. Flatwork: cement for basement floors, garage floors, driveways, and walkways; it may be reinforced and poured over sand, gravel, wire mesh or rebar to minimize shifting and settling that produce cracks.
Done by spraying or rolling sealant onto the foundation walls before the dirt is backfilled around it -- prevents water and seepage into the foundation.
corrugated rounded steel or cement units that keep dirt away from the basement window.
plowing excavated dirt into a dug-out area (ie: against the foundation's edges after it has been constructed)
water systems, tubs and showers, and a central vacuum. Installed and connected when the building is framed
Framing (joists, roof trusses, subfloors)
Framing: wood or steel skeleton -- supports the entire building. Joists: beams. Roof trusses: triangular braces -- form the base for the subfloors (plywood or other matieral) and walls; secure joists.
Insulating Concrete Forms (ICFs)
blocks or panels for framing building made of special foams filled with reinforced concrete; strong, customizable, and easy to install
A material like fiberglass that prevents heat transfer. Commonly used in batts (fiber blanket rolls), rigid panals, shredded paper, or other materials.
Roof finishes (tar paper, shingles)
the roof is finished with tar paper, shingles, or other roofing materials such as bartile or metal shingles or panels.
Sheetrock, drywall, gypsum board, plasterboard or wallboard
most common material for walls and ceilings. made of pulverized gypsum rock...nailed screwed or glued as panels (horizontally or vertically). very costly to remove after they have been installed.
covers the seams in the panels of sheetrock...3in wide stiff paper tape. attached and smoothed with a plaster called mud.
spraying or hand-trowling textures on the walls- much less costly than smoothing. light texture= "orange peel". heavy texture= "brocade texture"
extras to the house, built into the frame work- built-in shelves, closets, all trim (baseboard,door,window and railings)...plus any woodwork to be painted installed at that point...they are all painted after walls are installed (this part of the chapter describes the order of revamping a house)
central vacuum systems
plumbing facilitates CVS... may also be used for fresh air intake for wood burning stoves, furnace (heating) and air conditioning (cooling) units
it needs space allotted because it is a thick plumbing wall area...need to be able to access it for maintenance
Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC)
any form of heat, ventilation, and AC...very broad topic...many different forms, depending on the space, environment and needs
Forced air heating furnace (and high efficiency)
the furnace heats an element, and when air moves past it, the air is heated and blown into the room (high efficiency is a way to heat the house using less fuel, which costs less in the long run)
Ductwork, cold-air returns, registers, humidifiers
ductwork: hot water pipes that run through the walls, floors, and ceiling. cold-air returns: throws cold air back to the furnace for reheating. registers: vent in the floor or ceiling level where warm air enters the room. humidifiers: add moisture to to the heated air (any form of heat will dry out the room)
Central air conditioning system
maybe be a unit inside or outside of the building, that acts as the head of the cooling method- any other branch is related back to the one central place
very important in planning space, materials, and shape for noise control... textures to break up sound patterns, positive and negative space to fill evenly or block sound, materials to absorb or reflect...
series of items that must be accomplished as the project progresses. includes spaces for start and end dates (7.3)
refers to the standard materials used in building construction (panels of insulation, batting, blown in insulation... also heavy plastc sheets, window glazing, multiple panes of glass, etc)
Weatherstripping, draft dodgers
form of insulation. around doors and windows to stop drafts or air infiltration...draft dodgers are a towel or rug or something that is pushed against the door to prevent cold air from coming in
Movable insulation, insulative window treatments, shading devices
ways to block the transfer of heat in or out of solar rooms and buildings when unwanted
Active solar systems
made of mechanical parts that convert solar radiation to thermal energy to warm air and water
Radiation (greenhouse effect) (and drawing)
heat that is trapped and builds up inside glass-enclosed spaces
Direct gain or direct solar gain
the simplest form of passive solar heating; sunshine is coming through south-facing windows
thermal storage walls that trap heat; they have vents at top and bottom to utilize natural convection
window arrangements set high in the wall. let in sunlight during winter, and ventilate summer heat
Solar greenhouses or solariums
most popular of all passive solar systems; a living space that collects the sun's energy
products should be efficient and long term; use renewable resources; conserve water and gas;
Contract plumbing, HVAC
Contract plumbing usually located in central location. Heating Ventilation and Air Conditioning works to create an even tempered environment
Indoor Air Quality
air that is free of toxins, smoke, mold, and dust. people now use air purifiers. Big problem in large buildings. poor air quality creates sick building syndrome.
Metal or space frame system (and drawing)
3-D truss/beam and column assembly that creates a steel skeleton. AKA curtain wall construction. exterior finish can be glass or brick veneer or siding
Masonry, brick construction (and drawing)
Walls made up of structurally supportive bricks, such as concrete block or adobe brick. Commonly seen in convenience store/gas station building.
Arch system (and drawing)
Stone blocks cut and fitted to form a curved shape, anchored firmly in vertical supports and with keystone to stabilize the compression and friction needed to bind the arch together. Has been in existence since ancient Romans built viaducts.
Vaulted system (and drawing)
An elongated arch system such as seen in Medieval cathedrals. The vaulted system is used in ecclesiastical and public architecture where lofty spaces are desirable.
Dome system (and drawing)
An Arch rotated in a circular plan, with a compression ring to stabilize it. This system is most often seen in rotundas of gov't buildings and in some churches. Creates a soaring space inside the building.
Geodesic dome system (and drawing)
Constructed of triangular steel skeleton components filled with opaque or transparent materials. developed by architect Buckminster Fuller. Based on the strongest and most stable building shape, triangle. Creates a light-weight and economical spaces for a variety of purposes, even for transportable buildings and shelters. example- Epcot at Disney World
Beam system (and drawing)
Straight , solid structural elements of reinforced concrete; solid or laminated wood; or rolled steel section, based on compressive and tensile stress. Load is laterally transmitted along the axis to the vertical support beams. Often seen in gas stations canopies.
Tensile system (and drawing)
Fabric structures stretched over vertical posts or frames like a tent. Ex.-Greenhouse
Cable system (and drawing)
System based on a vertical column and horizontal slab connected with flexible steel cables.
Thin shell membrane (and drawing)
self-supporting concrete or lightweight foam membranes over a steel-reinforcing mesh (like an eggshell) with free-form curvatures as seen in the Sydney Opera House.
Life safety systems
Systems that protect users in case of emergency. (Most common fire) -fire alarm/smoke detector, sprinkler system, ect....