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Increase matrix synthesis

TGF-B
IGF-1

Increase matrix resorption

IL0-1
TNF

Heberdens node

Node at the DIP joint

Douchard's node

Node at the PIP joint

Pathogenesis

Osteophytes
Worn cartilage
Loose ligaments

Changes in bone

Narrow joint space
marginal osteophytes
Sclerosis
Eburnation
Focal pressure necrosis and subarticular cysts

Clinical features

Crepitus
swelling
muscle wasting
warmth
bony swelling

symptoms

use related pain
joint stiffness after inactivity
reduced range of motion

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