Jean le Rond D'Alembert
coeditor of the Encyclopedie.
Paper currency, the French churches were used as collateral -the first French paper currency issued by the General Assembly.
Medieval fortress that was converted to a prison stormed by peasants for ammunition during the early stages of the French Revolution.
Comfortable members of the 3rd estate. Basically middle class, wanted the privileges of the nobility and upper clergy.
Created by the National Convention, it established after the French Revolution -day one was the first day of the French Republic
Committee of Public Safety
Established and led by Robespierre, fixed bread prices and nationalized some businesses. Basically secret police and also controlled the war effort. Instigated the Reign of Terror.
Conspiracy of Equals
Led by "Gracchus" Babeuf an attempt to renew violent rebellion after the Thermidore reaction,-communistic in nature.
Form of government which followed the directory -established by Napoleon-ended when Napoleon was crowned emperor.
The third estate of the Estates General -broke from the Estates because they wanted the Estates to sit as a committee and not as segregated groups.
Led the Mountains with Robespierre-also executed with Robespierre.
Napoleon's painter-painted the famous portrait of Napoleon's coronation.
Declaration of the Rights of Man
Written by the National Convention -declared all men could do anything as long as it did not harm others.
Group of five men who served as liaisons between Robespierre and the Assembly. Overthrown by Napoleon.
Collection of works compiled during the Enlightenment -explained many aspects of society.
Not called since 1614-finally called by Louis XVI at the advice of his financial minister-demanded control over the King's finances -he refused and dismissed them-sat as three segregated groups.
Tax on salt during pre-revolutionary France-included in the Estate's list of grievances.
One of the two halves of the divided National Convention.
Followed the storming of the Bastille-people were scared of outlaws and reprisals-fanned flames of rebellion.
Fast and relatively humane-used for mass executions.
Created by Napoleon-kept watch over their own area of France -allowed Napoleon not to have to worry about petty problems.
Levee en Masse
Law that obligated all French men between certain ages to enlist in the army.
King of France-executed for treason by the National Convention-absolute monarch-husband of Marie Antoinette.
Louis XVI's wife -executed.
Member of the National Assembly-led the Mountains-began and led the Committee of Public Safety-began the Reign of Terror.
Petty laborers and laboring poor-wore pants not knee breeches-became a major political group in revolutionary France.
Tennis Court Oaths
Taken by the National Assembly-stated that they would not disband until they had made a new constitution. Met here because they were unable to go to their meeting place.
Artisans etc. Everyone not in the First or Second Estate.
A reaction against the violence of the Reign of Terror. Robespierre was executed.
The old order before the Revolution in France
the killing of a king
Site of palace outside Paris. Women marched there to demand action from Louis XVI.
Wrote Vindication of the Rights of Man and A Vindication of the Rights of Women.
1806-issued by Napoleon, instituted the Continental System, in the response to British blockade of commercial ports under French control.
Napoleon's brother, made king of Spain but unable to control the Spanish which led to the costly Peninsula War.
Confederation of the Rhine
League of German States organized by Napoleon in 1813 after defeating the Austrians at Austerlitz. The league collapsed after Napoleon's defeat in Russia.
(1806-12)French economic plan to cripple Britain. Russia's refusal to conform led to the Russian campaign.
The Grand Army
Combined French armies under Napoleon. Virtually destroyed during Napoleon's ill-fated Russian campaign.
(1814-24) tried to issue a Constitutional Charter which accepted many revolutionary changes and guaranteed civil liberties
Passed by Napoleon. Took away many of the rights gained by women, aimed at reestablihing the "family monarchy". Modified after Napoleon's defeat.
France was forced to invade Spain after the failure of Joseph Bonaparte. Very costly for Napoleon. The Duke of Wellington helped the Spanish.
vote of the people
Found by one of Napoleon's officers during the Egyptian campaign. Allowed people to decipher hieroglyphics.
French representative at the Congress of Vienna and limited the demands of other countries upon the French.
South Atlantic island. Napoleon's final home after the Battle of Waterloo.
(October 1805) Britain's Admiral Nelson destroyed the combined French and Spanish navies. Nelson was killed but invasion of Britain now became impossible.
Austrian foreign minister who basically controlled the Congress of Vienna. Wanted to promote peace, conservatism, and the repression of libaral nationalism throughout Europe.
British representative at Congress of Vienna.
The Hundred Days
The time from Napoleon's return from exile on Elba to defeat at Waterloo.
Sir Richard Arkwright
Invented water frame at almost the same time as the spinning jenny was invented.
Believed that public problems should dealt with on a rational scientific basis. Believed in the idea of the greatest good for the greatest number. Wrote, Principles of Morals and Legislation.
Inventor of the modern power loom.
Agitation against poor laws - working class discontent.
1799 and 1800-made trade unionism illegal.
The Communist Manifesto
Pamphlet written by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels-basis of Socialism.
1815 tariff on imported grain to protect domestic producers. Never worked well.
Refined pig iron-puddling furnace-heavy rolling mills
British Conservative-extended vote to all middle class male workers, needed to broaden aristocratic voter base.
Condition of Working Class in England- society's problems caused by capitalism and competition. Colleague of Karl Marx.
Factory Act 1833
Created factory worday for children between 9-13 to 8 hours a day. Not applicable to home. Outlawed child labor under 9-factory owners establish schools. Destroyed family unit.
French social theorist-criticized capitalism-wanted socialist utopia and emancipation of women. Theory of Four Movements.
About 1705 invented spinning jenny
New inventions, cotton and iron-changed small businesses beyond all recognition.
Inventor of flying shuttle, (1733).
Minimal governmental interference in the economic affairs. Adam Smith and Francois Quesnay.
German - father of socialism-emancipation of women-Communist Manifesto.
1705 invented steam engine that used coal, very inefficient.
Scottish spoke out about hiring children. Created mills in New Harmony.
Hawkish English Foreign Minister during revolutions of 1848.
A People's Charter
Draft of reform Bill which called for universal suffrage payment of members of Parliament and annual elections-6 main points.
1834, Gave some aid to the poor, but not very helpful against unemployment. Very favorable to employers.
First Reform Bill
1832, Modified the old political system by easing voting qualifications (but still not easy to qualify!). Abolished some smaller boroughs.
Second Reform Bill
1867, Conservatives and Liberals trying to gain votes. Disraeli's Conservatives extended the vote to almost 1 million more voters.
Political party in Britain controlled by aristocracy.
Ideal society based on socialist ideals-Louis Blanc and Charles Fourier
Added a condenser to Newcomen's steam engine to make it more efficient. Led to steam becoming a viable source of power.
British party more responsive to commercial and manufacturing interests.
(r. 1855-1881) Emperor of Russia; advocated moderate reforms for Russia; emancipated the serfs; he was assassinated.
Refers to the compromise of 1867 which created the dual monarchy of Austria and Hungary.
"Blood and iron"
Refers to Prussian tactics brought about by Otto von Bismarck; his unification of Germany was through a policy of...
The federal council of Austrian government.
Count Camillo Cavour
Endorsed the economic doctrines of the middle class. Worked for a secret alliance with Napoleon III against Austria. Worked to unite Italy.
A secret society; designated to overthrow Bonapartist rulers; they were liberal patriots.
1819, it discouraged liberal teachings in southern Germany. Censorship imposed by Metternich.
Monarch rules with limitations by the constitution; written or unwritten.
A message from William I of Prussia to Napoleon III which brought France into the Franco Prussian war.
1870-71, war between France and Prussia; seen as German victory; seen as a struggle of Darwinism; led to Prussia being the most powerful European nation. Instigated by Bismarck; France seen as the aggressor.
1807-82; personified the romantic revolutionary nationalism. Attempted to unify Germany.
(1807-82) An Italian radical who emerged as a powerful independent force in Italian politics. He planned to liberate the Two Kingdoms of Sicily.
Leader of the Hungarians, demanded national autonomy with full liberties and universal suffrage in 1848.
1865-1909; King of Belgium, sent Henry Stanley to Africa.
The base ideas of liberty and equality
In 1867 the Hungarian nobility restored the constitution of 1848 and used it to dominate both the ..... peasantry & the minority population.
Italy idealistic patriot; preached a centralized democratic republic based on universal suffrage and the will of the people.
Pride in one's nation, group, or traditions; a desire for independence
Original Napoleon's nephew; consolidated conservative government and the ideals of nationalism.
A movement to promote the independence of Slav people. Roughly started with the Congress in Prague; supported by Russia. Led to the Russo-Turkish War of 1877.
Persecution of minorities, especially the Jews in Russia.
Political theory, advocated by Bismarck, that national success justifies any means possible. Very Machiavellian.
Volunteers in Garibaldi's army
Popularly elected parliament in Germany. Very little power.
Policy imposing Russian customs and traditions on other people.
Syllabus of Errors
1864. Pope Pius IX denounced rationalism, socialism, and separation of church and state.
Treaty of Frankfurt
The end of the Franco-Prussian War. Alsace and Lorraine given to Germany.
Otto von Bismarck
(1815-1898) Prussian chancellor who engineered the unification of Germany under his rule.
Local assemblies in Russia.
Economic custom union of German states, founded in 1834 by Prussia. Eliminated internal tariffs.
Italian period of history from 1815 to1850.
Great German Party at the Frankfurt Assembly. "Big Germans".
Little German Party at the Frankfurt Assembly. "Little Germans".
Idea created by J.G. Herder to identify the national character of Germany, but soon passed to other countries.