Reniassance & Reformation

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Renaissance & Revolution Terms

Medici

rich family that helped fuel the Renaissance by supporting arts and artisans, ran Florence

Humanism

intellectual movement, belief in human reason

Machiavelli

wrote to rulers about how to gain/maintain power. Ends justify means. Though of himself as an enemy of oppression and corruption

Leonardo Da Vinci

talented artist, botany, anatomy, astronomy, optics, music, architecture, and engineering who fueled the Renaissance

Raphael

artist who blended Christian and classical art styles, studied works of great masters

Michelangelo

Sculptor, engineer, painter, architect, poet. Work reflected life-long spiritual and artistic struggles

Johan Gutenberg

invented printing press

Erasmus

spread humanism ideas, attempted to stop church corruption

Jan van Eyck

Flemish painter who was a founder of the Flemish school of painting and who pioneered modern techniques of oil painting

Charles V

Attempted to make Martin Luther give up his beliefs then outlawed him when he didn't

Protestantism

religion made from Luther's revolt against church. Believed everyone had equal access to God through bible/faith.

Martin Luther

monk who lead revolt against Church, wrote 95 theses, saw Church's worldliness and corruption

Justification (Salvation) by Faith

belief from Luther that you get to heaven through faith not wealth

Indulgences

sold by priests/pope to lesson time in purgatory

The 95 Theses

Martin Luther's 95 arguments against indulgences

Peace of Augsburg

compromise between Charles V and princes; each prince would decide which religion their land would be, many northern German states were Lutheran, many south German states were Catholic

Henry VIII

wanted divorce but pope would not allow it (didn't want to offend Charles V). Passed a parliament making him head of church of England which many Catholics refused to follow and were executed for treason

Anglican Church

Henry VIII's new religion; kept Catholic worship and Protestant doctrines.

John Calvin

Published book on how to run/organize Protestant Church, put forth idea of Predestination

Predestination

idea by John Calvin that God has already determined who would go to heaven

Anabaptist

new religion with no infant baptism, sought radical change and wanted separate Church and state w/ religious tolerance

Puritans

Protestant sect in England hoping to "purify" the Anglican church of Roman Catholic traces in practice and organization.

Presbyterians

Members of a Protestant church governed by Presbyters, elders, and founded on the teachings of John Knox.

Catholic(Counter) Reformation

lead by Pope Paul III which goal was to bring moral authority back to church and halt Protestant religion, also ended corruption of church.

Council of Trent

decided what direction Catholic Counter Reformation would take, ended corruption / worldliness in clergy, built schools for better education, stated bible wasn't only source of religion, reaffirmed Catholic views that were being challenged

Jesuits

founded by Ignatius of Loyola. Jesuits defended and spread Catholic faith, taught obedience and discipline. Absolute loyalty to church

Inquisition

a group that used secret testimony, torture, and execution to root out heresy. Also provided list of forbidden books

Index of Prohibited Books

books that were prohibited by Inquisition

Queen Elizabeth (Elizabethan Settlement)

After Edward's (killed Catholics) and Mary's (killed Protestants) reigns of England Elizabeth came in. Set out to make reforms that became known as ____________. Policies were a compromise between Protestant and Catholic, Catholic rituals + hierarcy but with Common Book of Prayers by Thomas Cranmer and English replaced Latin

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