wrote to rulers about how to gain/maintain power. Ends justify means. Though of himself as an enemy of oppression and corruption
Leonardo Da Vinci
talented artist, botany, anatomy, astronomy, optics, music, architecture, and engineering who fueled the Renaissance
Sculptor, engineer, painter, architect, poet. Work reflected life-long spiritual and artistic struggles
Jan van Eyck
Flemish painter who was a founder of the Flemish school of painting and who pioneered modern techniques of oil painting
religion made from Luther's revolt against church. Believed everyone had equal access to God through bible/faith.
monk who lead revolt against Church, wrote 95 theses, saw Church's worldliness and corruption
Justification (Salvation) by Faith
belief from Luther that you get to heaven through faith not wealth
Peace of Augsburg
compromise between Charles V and princes; each prince would decide which religion their land would be, many northern German states were Lutheran, many south German states were Catholic
wanted divorce but pope would not allow it (didn't want to offend Charles V). Passed a parliament making him head of church of England which many Catholics refused to follow and were executed for treason
Published book on how to run/organize Protestant Church, put forth idea of Predestination
new religion with no infant baptism, sought radical change and wanted separate Church and state w/ religious tolerance
Protestant sect in England hoping to "purify" the Anglican church of Roman Catholic traces in practice and organization.
Members of a Protestant church governed by Presbyters, elders, and founded on the teachings of John Knox.
lead by Pope Paul III which goal was to bring moral authority back to church and halt Protestant religion, also ended corruption of church.
Council of Trent
decided what direction Catholic Counter Reformation would take, ended corruption / worldliness in clergy, built schools for better education, stated bible wasn't only source of religion, reaffirmed Catholic views that were being challenged
founded by Ignatius of Loyola. Jesuits defended and spread Catholic faith, taught obedience and discipline. Absolute loyalty to church
a group that used secret testimony, torture, and execution to root out heresy. Also provided list of forbidden books
Queen Elizabeth (Elizabethan Settlement)
After Edward's (killed Catholics) and Mary's (killed Protestants) reigns of England Elizabeth came in. Set out to make reforms that became known as ____________. Policies were a compromise between Protestant and Catholic, Catholic rituals + hierarcy but with Common Book of Prayers by Thomas Cranmer and English replaced Latin