Megan's Ancient Middle East and Greece Study Guide

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Fertile Cresent

Name given to crescent-shaped area of fertile land strecheding from the lower Nile valley, along the east Mediterranean coast, and into Syria and present day Iraq where agriculture and early civilization first began about 8000 B.C (Summarians)

Sumarians

the earliest urban-based society in mesopotamia they developed the earliest form of cuneiform writing

Code of Hammurabi

A collection of 282 laws which were enforced under Hammurabi's Rule. One of the first examples of written law in the ancient civilizations.

Epic of Gilgamesh

showed the hopelessness of immortality, one of the earliest writings.

Egypt

A country of northeast Africa and the Sinai Peninsula on the Mediterranean Sea. In ancient times it was a flourishing kingdom and one of the earliest known civilizations, known for its development of hieroglyphic writing and its achievements in agriculture, art, and architecture. It reached its height during the XVIII dynasty (1570-1342? B.C.) and declined after the seventh century B.C., falling to various conquerors including the Assyrians, Greeks, Romans, Arabs, Turks, French, and British.

Nile

River in Egypt; Nile gave life to the Egyptian desert; Biannual flooding; longest river in the world (Over 4000 Mi. long) Had cataracts or rapids; provided fertile soil

Pharoahs

ruled kingdom, were considered gods, years of rule can be divided, old kingdom 2700-2200BCE, middle kingdom- 2050-1800BCE, new kingdom- 1570-1090BCE

Pyramids

monumental architecture typical of Old Kingdom Egypt; used as burial sites for pharaohs. began in 2700BC

Mummies

process of preserving the body with chemicals after death, Egyptians developed this process because they believed the body had to be preserved to make life after death possible

Afterlife

life after death that was the focus of Egyptian religion

Israel

Saul was king in 1030 b.c.. an ancient kingdom of the Hebrew tribes at the southeastern end of the Mediterranean Sea

monothesism

belief in one god

polythesim

the belief of many gods

covenant

(Bible) an agreement between God and his people in which God makes certain promises and requires certain behavior from them in return - two sides ( if you follow the commandments and head the covenant then you wll have compassion upon your people, if you do not follow then you will have sudden terror, fever, consumption, and sow your seeds in vain. etc

torah

(Judaism) The most important part of the Bible for he Jews was the scroll of parchment on which the first five books of the Hebrew Scripture is written

prophets

is someone who foretold the future but also called by YHWH to serve and a consceince to the nation denouncing injustice and warning of doom.

Babylonian exile

Period of history when the Babylonians forced most of the inhabitants of Judah to migrate to Babylon , the temple was destroyed but they maintained their identity and were called " Jews" from Judah.

Messiah

the awaited king of the Jews- the annointed one would someday come to restore Israel to freedom. ( descendant of David)

Hammurabi

Babylonian king who codified the laws of Sumer and Mesopotamia (died 1750 BC)

Akhenaten

early ruler of Egypt who rejected the old gods and replaced them with sun worship (died in 1358 BC); monotheism

Abraham

called by god from Mesopotamia in Canaan promised descendants as numerous as the stars in the sky, circumcision was introduced as the sign of his covenant with God

Moses

(Old Testament) the Hebrew prophet who led the Israelites from Egypt across the Red sea on a journey known as the Exodus

David

(Old Testament)Sheperd boy annointed the 2nd king of the Israelites. Became a military leader in Saul's army.

Solomon

Known for his wisdom. Built a temple for YHWH in Jerusalem on a hill called Zion; Previously sacrifices and worship services were conducted in a tent that had moved between several locations.

Book of Job

The most challenging portions of the Old Testament. It's main subject is the problem of righteous suffering, also studies the questions of goodness, evil, justice, and how they relate to human life. Divided into 2 major sections.

Zoroaster

Religious teacher and prophet of ancient Persia; he founded a religion known as Zoroastrianism based on the idea that people have free will and can act as they choose . Saw the world as a place of conflict between good and evil. Did not worship a supreme god.

Indo- Europeans

A new linguistic group of nomadic people that migrated from Western Europe at some time between 2000 and 1500 B.C.

Trojan War

Mycenaeans (Greeks) vs. Troy. Trojan Prince kidnapped Helen, wife of the Mycenaen's king. Greeks won when they tricked the Trojans with the Trojan Horse. The Iliad gives information about the Trojan War.

Delphi

an ancient city in central Greece, in Phocis: site of an oracle of Apollo

Olympic Games

A religious festival held in honor of Zeus. Held at Olympia in the polis of Elis in the Peloponnesus.Only male cmopetitors (in the nude). First recorded games in 776 B.C. Some later greeks marked time by the four year olympiad.

Colonies

Greeks set up colonies in Thrace, where they sought good farmland. Also settled along the shores of the Black Sea and secured the approaches to it with cities on the Hellespont and Bosporus, most noticeably by Byzantium, site of the later Constantinople. Let to trade and industry. Spread their culture through the Mediterranean basin.

Hoplite

Heavily armored Greek infantryman of the Archaic and Classical periods who fought in the close-packed phalanx formation. Hoplite armies-militias composed of middle- and upper-class citizens supplying their own equipment: Superior to all other forces 128

Monarchy

A government ruled by a king or queen

Aristocracy

a government in which power is in the hands of a hereditary ruling class or nobility

Oligarchy

a political system governed by a few people

Tyranny

a form of government in which the ruler is an absolute dictator (not restricted by a constitution or laws or opposition etc.)

Democracy

a political system in which the supreme power lies in a body of citizens who can elect people to represent them

Sparta

Greek city-state that was ruled by an oligarchy, focused on military, used slaves for agriculture, discouraged the arts

Helot

In the society of ancient Sparta, a peasant bound to the land

Athens

, Powerful citystate in Ancient Greece that was a leader in arts, sciences, philosophy, democracy and architecture rather than militarty force the opposite of Sparta. evolved from Aristocracy to a democracy.

Ostracism

O, procedure used by the Athenian assembly in the 5th century BC to banish an unpopular or potentially dangerous citizen for ten years, without revoking his citizenship or property rights. Each voter wrote the name of the individual he wanted exiled on an ostrakon, which was then placed in an urn. There had to be at least 6,000 votes against one man.

Battle of Marathon

King Darius sent army to attack Athens; Athenians defeated them; Pheidippides ran 26 miles with the news.

Battle of Thermopylae

Greek city-states united to stop the Persians; Persians advanced through the narrow mountain pass of Thermopylae and were met by 300 Spartans; Persians found another way through the mountains and surrounded the Greeks; the Spartans refused to surrender and fought till they were all killed

Pelopnnesian War

p, a conflict between Athens and Sparta that lasted for 27 years

Hellenistic Period

that culture associated with the spread of Greek influence as a result of Macedonian conquests; often seen as the combination of Greek culture with eastern political forms

Epicureans

People who believed the proper pursuit of humankind is undisturbed withdrawal from the world

Stoics

Hellenistic group of philosophers; emphasized inner moral independence cultivated by strict discipline of the body and personal bravery

Mystery religions

A diverse group of beliefs and practices of ancient Greek and Roman civilization that included initiation into a specific group, a personal encounter with the deity, and hope for spiritual renewal and a better afterlife.

Homer

ancient Greek epic poet who is believed to have written the Iliad and the Odyssey (circa 850 BC)

Hesiod

Greek poet whose existing works describe rural life and the genealogies of the gods and the beginning of the world (eighth century BC)

Lycurgus

legendary ruler of Sparta; tradition credits him with the constitution that changed Sparta into a military state.

Solon

Athenian reformer of the 6th century; established laws that eased the burden of debt on farmers, forbade enslavement for debt

Themistocles

Athenian leader in years after Marathon, the man who persuaded Athens to use its windfall silver-mine profit to purchase ships and develop a navy to face the inevitable return of the Persians. He master-minded the naval battle of Salamis (480 BCE).

Pericles

Athenian leader noted for advancing democracy in Athens and for ordering the construction of the Parthenon.

Socrates

Athenian philosopher (ca. 470-399 B.C.E.) who shifted the emphasis of philosophical investigation from questions of natural science to ethics and human behavior. He made enemies in government by revealing the ignorance of others. (133)Known for the socratic method. executed in 399 B.C. for corrupting youth.

Plato

Student of Socrates, wrote The Republic about the perfectly governed society

Aristotle

Greek philosopher. A pupil of Plato, the tutor of Alexander the Great, and the author of works on logic, metaphysics, ethics, natural sciences, politics, and poetics, he profoundly influenced Western thought. In his philosophical system, which led him to criticize what he saw as Plato's metaphysical excesses, theory follows empirical observation and logic, based on the syllogism, is the essential method of rational inquiry.

Diogenes

an ancient Greek philosopher and Cynic who rejected social conventions (circa 400-325 BC)

Alexander the Great

son of Philip II; received military training in Macedonian army and was a student of Aristotle; great leader; conquered much land in Asia Minor, Syria, Egypt, and Mesopotamia; goal was to conquer the known world

Judah Maccabee

son of Jewish preist; led the rebel forces in their fight agains the Syrians and eventually regained control of Jerusalem in 164 B.C.

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