This consists of the thalamus, hypothalamus, and epithalamus.
The Process of Embryonic development
1. Neural plate forms from ectoderm
2. Neural plate invaginates to form a neural groove and neural folds
3. Neural groove fuses dorsally to form the neural tube
4. Neural tube gives rise to the brain and spinal cord
This formation mediates sensation, motor activities, cortical arousal, learning and memory. It also is the gateway to the cerebral cortex. Also sorts edits and relays information. Impulses from cerebellum help direct the motor cortices. Impulses from hypothalamus help regulate emotion and visceral function.
This formation is the autonomic control center for many visceral functions like bp, hb, digestive tract motility. Also is the center for emotional response such as perception of pleasure, fear, rage. Also drives rhythms and drives.
What are the three regions of the brain stem?
Midbrain, Pons, and Medulla Oblongata
This formation has similar structure to spinal cord but contains embedded nuclei. controls automatic behaviors necessary for survival. contains fiber tracts connecting higher and lower neural centers.
This formation is located between the diencephalon and the pons. Connects spinal cord to cerebrum and cerebellum.
This formation forms part of the anterior wall of the fourth ventricle. Connects higher brain centers and the spinal cord. Relays impulses between the motor cortex and the cerebellum. Controls normal rhythm and breathing.
This formation contains autonomic reflex centers such as the cardiovascular center (Hr), pulmonary center, vomiting center and centers that affect coughing, sneezing and hiccuping.
This formation subconsciously provides precise timing and appropriate patterns of skeletal muscle contraction
This system effects the emotional or affective brain containing the amygdala. Other parts play a role in expressing emotions via gestures, and resolves mental conflict. Puts emotional responses to odors. Interacts with prefontal lobes and so we can react emotionally to things we consciously undertand to be happening.
This formation sends impulses to the cerebral cortex to keep it conscious and alert. It also filters out repetitive and weak stimuli. Severe injury may result in coma. It's motor function helps control coarse limb movements. It's autonomic centers regulate visceral motor functions like the vasomotor, cardiac and respiratory centers.
What does the hypothalamus regulate?
Endocrine, autonomic, and lymbic systems. "HEAL"
Autonomic Nervous System
This system coordinates cardiovascular, respiratory, digestive, excretory and reproductive systems. consists of two divisions called the sympathetic and the parasympathetic nervous systems.
What are the effectors for the somatic nervous system and autonomic nervous system?
Somatic- skeletal muscles
Autonomic- cardiac muscle, smooth muscle, and glands.
This systems heavily myelinated axons extend from CNS to effector.
This systems set of axons consists of a two-neuron chain. A preganglionic first neuron which is lightly myelinated and a second ganglionic neuron that extends to an effector organ.
Autonomic Nervous System
Innervates smooth and cardiac muscle and glands. (these are involuntary and subconscious) Also makes adjustments to ensure optimal support for body activities. Viscera as most effectors.
Sympathetic Nervous System
Mobilizes the body for fight or flight. Increases heart rate, alertness, breathing rate, dilation of pupils, mobilization of energy reserves. Generally longer lasting because levels of norepinephrine in the blood. Adrenal medulla, sweat glands, arrector pili, kidneys, and most blood vessels only receive fibers from this system.
Parasympathetic Nervous System
Performs maintenance activities and conserves body energy for the rest and digest response. Decreases hr, stimulates muscles of digestive system, promotes defecation, urination, salivation. Crainosacral axon/ neuron location. Short lived.
ACh releasing axons. Nicotinic receptors. When ACh binds the effect is stimulatory. Muscarinic receptors. Effectors are on all parasym. target organs. Ex: sweat glands, blood vessel muscles in muscle. Usually stimulatory but inhibitory on cardiac muscle.
Norepinephrine releasing axons