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style...

refers to a distinctive handling of elements and media associated with the work of an individual artist, a school or movement, or a specific culture or time period.

The best way to illustrate stylistic differences is by choosing works with a common theme...

such as ("Forget It! Forget Me!", "The Two Girlfriends", "Ken Moody & Robert Sherman", "The Kiss", "Two Figures", [Figures 4-1 thru 4-10]) and challenge ourselves to articulate the similarities and differences among them.
The first and seemingly obvious connection is that all of the works represent couples. Immediately, we are struck by the differences among them, in terms of the stories they imply and the styles in which they are rendered. The images demand that we get beyond the conventional defition of "couple," for not all couples are composed of a male and female.

Roy Lichtenstein:Forget It! Forget Me!

is an example of representational style, recogonizable but not realistic. Pop art which has apperance of a comic strip. Name of Style - Exa. of Pop Art. Has the visual appearance of a comic strip.

Robert Mapplethrope: Ken Moody and Robert Sherman

realistic depiction of what it was like to be gay in 1980's America. Pride and apprehension.

Toulouse-Lautrec:The Two Girl Friends

representational style, takes place at the turn of the century in the 1890's Paris. Toulouse-Lautrec did a lot of posters. Did a lot of paintings of circus performers.

Oskar Kokoschka: The Tempest

expressionism which shows artist's inner torment. Represented as expressionalism because of colors and shapes used for emotional impact. Going thru a bad relationship. Before WW-I. Brushstrokes reflect the artist's inner torment. The artist, Oskar Kokoschka was an Expressionist.

Constantin Brancusi: The Kiss

abstract style that reduces 2 figures to simple block form, like Cubism of Picasso of which the artist, Constantin Brancusi, was influenced by.
Simplified the human form
Simplified and geometric
Abstract because it departs
Simple Block form, much like Picasso from the Cubism style
Symbolizes love, committment

Barbara Hepworth: Two Figures (menhirs)- meaning a pre-historic stone

non objective style, makes no reference to nature or reality.
-No recognizable objects
-No subject matter
-does not relate to nature or reality

Context has a profound influence on style, artworks are a product of their culture at the moment in time

Context of a work of art is everything that is contained in it. The content of a work refers not onl to its lines or forms but also to its subject matter and its underlying meaning or themes.
Background or traditions/artists are very much a product of their culture or traditions of a movement in time.

Categories of style: Realism...

refers to the portryal of people or objects as seen by the eye or really thought to be.

Categories of style: Representational...

protrays people or objects in recognizable, though not in a realistic manner. (exa. "Forget It!" Forget Me!")

Categories of style: Expressionistic...

Artist intentionally distorts colors and shapes to achieve a heightened EMOTIONAL impact.

Categories of style: Abstract and Nonobjective...

Art that departs significantly from the actual appearance of things.

Grant Wood: American Gothic (1930) - Realistic interpretation

realistic portrait of rural life in America and made famous by advertising on cereal boxes
-called gothic because of the house and pose
-the woman is the artist, Grant Wood's sister
-the man was a dentist
-Grant Wood enlisted them, had them dress in farmers clothes and pose for picture.
-woman's apron matches apron in the house
-the top middle portion of man's jump suit represents/matches pitch fork
-pitch fork repeated in catus
-the artist, Grant Wood, was from Iowa
-Grant Wood used these people to pose as an American farm couple of the 1930's
-the "American Gothic" work has been on cereal boxes and in advertising
-Grant Wood used principles of design to hold composition together.

Donna Rosenthal: "He Said...She Said "Lets get physical" "Do you think I'm sexy"

representational figures implied by a suit and partly dress made from discarded books and newspapers
-meeting for the 1st time
-woman's projecting her thoughts in written form on the man
-man's projecting his thoughts on the woman
-representational because making a statement about how people feel about one another
-made from old books and newspapers

Judy Plaff Voodoo (1981)

nonobjective work that leads viewers to search for subject matter based on title

Form

includes all elements that make up composition EXCEPT SUBJECT MATTER. Form includes elements, design principles, and composition of a work of art. This might include:
Colors used
Textures
shapes
The illusion of 3-D
Balance
Rhythm
Unity of design

content

everything that is contained within a work of art INCLUDING SUBJECT MATTER AND UNDERLYING MEANING. The content of a work of art not only refers to lines and forms but also its underlying meanings or themes.

Jacques-Louis David: "Death of Marat"

The artist, Marat, was a controversal writer who angered a lot of people.
-Marat, the artist, was murdered by a woman while he was in a tub.
-Marat had a skin condition
-Marat died holding on to a pen
-Marat died for what he believed in

Barbara Kruger: Untitled(we don't Need another hero) - 1987

The main narrative is gender ideology which stereotypes males and females.
-difference between males and females in society
-relationship between brother and sister or two friends
-we have sterotypes of how we should think and behave as males and females
-the man is always saying that he's allowed
-socially motivated
--we don't need another hero because we can take care of ourselves as women

iconography

study of themes and symbols in the visual arts -- in works of art. Exa.
-winter is a common symbol of death and aloneness in the arts.
-Fall is a common symbol of harvest and decline
-awareness of symbolism can enrich the viewing experience.

Bronzino: Venus, Cupid, Folly, and Time (The Exposure of Luxury)

an iconographic puzzle meant to be ambigous and confusing.
-Iconography or symbolism
-The old man at the top of painting represents time
-incest
-mask taken off
-holding fruit is forbidden
-time reveals everything
-the girl behind is chasity (two left hands-- confused -- preplexed)

Willie Bester: "Migrant Miseries" 1993

symbolizes oppression of South Africa, Apartheid system.
-symbolism: suffering, mistreatment, killing of people in South Africa around the time that Nelson Mandela was jailed.
-Bicycle wheels, chain
-murders, beatings, lock, baseball lot
-mistreatment of children, inadequate housing, unhealthy
-Iconography that refers to oppression during South Africa Apartheid.

drawing

the art of running an implement over a surface, leaving some trace of a mark. The result of an implement running over a surface and leaving some trace of a gesture. Drawing is basic to the visual arts.

The quality of line and nature of shading are affected by...

the texture of the support

Categories of drawing (at least 3 categories)

1. Sketches: A quick recording of an idea (wouldn't take more than a minute or two).
2. Plans: Studies or preliminary drawing
3. Final Drawing or Fully Developed Works of Art: Completed drawing that you hang on the wall. You know it's finished because you have worked all of the plans out.

Rembrandt: Copy of Leonardo Da Vinci's Last Supper

a sketch in which Rembrandt added additional features such as royal canopy.
-a sketch with changes
-Rembrant added a Royal Canapy over JESUS' head symbolizing JESUS as KING over Heaven and earth.
-Halo over JESUS' head
-Dog in sketch as a symbol of loyality

Silverpoint

an unforgiving dry medium that cannot be smuged or erased.
Silverpoint is one of the oldest drawing media. It was widely used from the late Middle Ages to the early 1500s.
-Working with silverpoint is delicate and and allows for little or no correction.

Silverpoint used from Middle Ages to 1500s

Silverpoint will not erase and will not smudge. You will also have to crosshatchet

Silverpoint drawing

-are created by dragging a silver-tipped implement over a surface that has been coated with ground of bone dust or chalk mixed with gum, water, and pigment. This ground is sufficiently coarse to allow small flecks of silver from the instrument to adhere to the prepared surface as it is drawn across.
-uses a vellum or calfskin (note: vellum or calfskin was used because its softer and flexible) support with a ground of bone or chalk mixed with gum, water and pigment for color.
-Each silverpont line, a soft gray to begin with, mellows and darkens to a graish brown hue.

Modern day pencil uses graphit which is composed of graphite

a mixture of carbon and clay
-most traditional media
-replaced silverpoint
-capable of creating a wide range of effects

Charcoal is burnt wood.

-It was first used on cave walls by prehistoric people.
-taking sticks and bones and putting them in fire
-burnt pieces of wood or stone
ALSO HAS A LONG HISTORY:
-used by prehistoric man on cave walls
-charcoal is burnt pieces of wood or bone
-non charcoal is made from controlled charring of special hardwoods.
-ranges from hard to soft
-can be smudged or rubbed
-needs to be fixed with varnish, or can be rubbed off
-will show the surface of the paper

Claudio Bravo: "Package" (1969) made with charcoal, pastel and sanguine

a trompe I'oeil (meaning tricks the eye) illusion of package wrapped in blue crumpled paper with yellow string
-charcoal, pastels and chalk
-charcoal is dark part
-the pastel part is the blue
-Sanguine, a touch of the red put on the rope
-rope is yellow and blue
-created an illusion by using coal with warm
-charcoal, chalk and pastel --the effects are similar and can be used together

The effects of charcoal, chalk, and pastel as drawn on paper surface are very similar...

though the compositions of the media differ. Chalk and pastel consist of pigment and a binder, such as gum arabic

Sanguine

an earthy red chalk from the Latin word for "blood"

Michelangelo: "Studies for The Libyan Sybil"

-used as a preliminary study for another project / a larger work on the Sistine Chapel ceiling.
-A planned prelimenary drawing for a larger work -- the Sistine Chapel ceiling
-Uses croshatching to make it look 3-dimensional
-licked pen or pencil
-toes on drawing are hanging over the ledge
-painting was done as a linear drawing because of the cross hatching
-Linear drawing uses hatching and cross hatching
-used the tip of chalk

Jean-Baptiste Carpeaux: Portrait of a Woman

has a subtle tonal contrast and hazy atmosphere through use of soft chalk on coarse paper

Edgar Degas:Woman at Her Toilette

-one of his most favorite subject matter using pastel chalk
-used pastels on prelimenary and final drawings
-used tip of chalk
-can tell he really enjoyed the use of pastels
-done in pastel chalk because of all of the colors
-the artist, Edgar Degas, was one of the masters of pastel drawing in the 19th century
-one of his favorate subject matters were ballet dancers in motion.

Jaune Quick To See Smith: The Environment: Be a Sheperd

has simple forms done in a sketchy manner in charcoal, colored chalk, and pastel.
- the artist, Jaune Quick-To-See Smith, appears as a shepherd -- trying to protect her way of life
-pottery disappearing
-a dream or thinking that had not quite been realized.
-The changes going on in her country
-Deliberately sketchy
-glasses and wheat fields blowing in the winds of change
-church replcing tribal customes

Beverly Buchanan: Henriette's Yard (figures 5-13, 5-14, 5-15)

art focused on Southern Shack Dwellers such as Mary Lou Furchron
-photograph (b) shows house caving in
-influenced by Mary Lou Furchron's "Southern Shack Dwelling"
-2 photographs taken by Beverly Buchanan and depicted in painting of Beverly Buchanan in Figure 5-15

-Figure 5-14 "Hometown - Shotgun Shack, by Beverly Buchanan (like where I was as a child in Mobile)

India ink (or China ink)

the oldest type of ink made from carbon black and water. Ancient peoplemade ink from dyes of plants, squid and octopus. Has been used for thousands of years. Instruments used with ink are primarily pen and brush.

wash

diluted ink - thin water

Japanese artists are masters of brush and ink for every type of calligraphy...

ranging from works of art to everyday writing. The Japanese facility with the technique is mst evident in seemingly casual sketches, such as those done in the late 18th and early 19th centuries by Japanese artist Katsushika Hokusai.

Giovanni Battista Tiepoplo:Hagar and Ishmael in the Wilderness

uses pen and wash to give a tonal emphasis
-pen, brush & brown ink and wash, over sketch in black chalk

Leonardo Da Vinci: Study of Drapery

a brush and wash that is so relaistic that it looks photographic.
Example of Brush & Wash
-uses brush and wash on linen that look so realistic it looks photographic

cartoon

-derived from the Italian word cartone, meaning paper
-orginally meant full scale preliminary drawing
-originally referred to full-scale prelimenary drawings done on paper for projects such as fresco paintings, stained glass, or tapestries
-Definition for cartoons were expanded to what we know now when, in 1843, a parody of fresco cartoons which were submitted for decoration of the House of Parliament appeared in an English magazine.
-Modern cartoons rely on caricatures

Honore Daumier: Counsel for the Defense

a caricatured illustration of theatrics employed by a defense attorney
-making fun of lawyers
-carictured illustration of the theateractrics employed by defense attorney.

Dr. Seuss: Cages Cost Money

- work was about Buying more US Savings Bonds and Stamps
-got his start as an editorial cartoonist for a New York paper during World War-II.
-Drew more than 400 cartoons, many of which pertained to the war effort.
-Seuss was the chief editorial cartoonist for the New York tabloid newspaper "PM".

The PRIMARY FLUID media....

is ink

Non-Representational or Non-objective

makes no reference whatsoever to nature or reality--has no subject matter. (exa. Barbara Hepworth's "Two Figures")

The five categories of style are...

Realism, Representational, Expressionism, Abstract & Non-objective and Non-Representational

The THREE levels of Content in a Work of Art are:

Subject Matter, Elements & Composition, and Underlying or symbolic meanings or themes

Jacques-Louis David: "The Oath of the Horatti" (1784)

Jacques-Louis David, the artist, was court painter to King Louis XVI and later for Napoleon Bonaparte. This work of art depicted the following:
-a woman's place is in the home
-a man's place is to go to war
-the sons are going off to fight (2 sets of three sons -- both sets of sons are triplets)
-one of the women are upset because she knows her brother is going off to kill her lover and either the brother or lover will be killed.
-Jacques-Louis David, the artist, was loyal to the king and put in jail.

The History of the Pencil

came into use in the 1500s
-mass produced pencils invented in the late 18th century
-uses a thin rod of "graphite" encased in wood or paper.
-The graphite is ground to dust, mixed with clay and baked.
-The more clay, the harder the pencil.

Chuck Close, "Self Portrait"

-use of conte crayon (one of the most popular commercially manufactured crayons) that uses a grid transfer system with pattern.
-using a grid transferring system of textures and patterns
-all dark places (eyes, glasses, beard) have a different pattern. This is how he gets the solid areas, creating a visual effect.
-Chuck Close, the artist of "Self Portrait", uses conte crayon because it does not smear (used black conte)

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