Had horrible headaches to the point where he would lose concentration. Neurosurgeons found that he had a tumor that forced his frontal lobes upward into the top of his skull. They had to remove some of the frontal lobe tissue which resulted in him losing his ability to feel emotion. Emotions are a primary source of motivation.
Factors that energize, direct, or sustain behavior.
State of biological or social deficiencies.
Maslow's arrangement of needs, in which basic survival needs are lowest priority and personal growth needs are highest priority.
A state that is achieved when one's personal dreams and aspirations have been attained.
Psychological activation, such as increased brain activity, autonomic responses, sweating, or muscle tension.
Psychological state that motivates an organism to satisfy its needs.
The tendency for bodily functions to maintain equilibrium.
External stimuli that motivate behaviors (as opposed to internal drives).
Performance increases with arousal until an optimal point, after which arousal interferes with performance.
People seek pleasure and avoid pain.
refers to humans' desire for pleasantness. (Sigmund Freud)
Motivation to perform an activity because of the external goals toward which that activity is directed.
Motivation to perform an activity because of the value or pleasure associated with that activity, rather than for an apparent external goal or purpose.
People seldom are aware of their specific motives and instead draw inferences about their motivations according to what seems to make the most sense. (Daryl Bem)
Self-regulation (of behavior)
The process by which people alter or change their behavior to attain personal goals.
The expectancy that your efforts will lead to success; this belief helps mobilize your energies.
The desire to do well relative to standards of excellence.
Delay of gratification
The process of transcending immediate temptations to achieve long-term goals.
The Marshmallow Test
video of little girl who resisted eating the marshmallow. (Even when it was dipped in chocolate.)
Hot cognitions versus cold cognitions
Hot cognition is a motivated reasoning phenomenon in which a person's responses (often emotional) to stimuli are heightened. Hot cognition is a theory relative to cognitive processes and learning motivation. Hot cognition might be associated with cognitive arousal, in which a person is much more responsive to environmental factors regardless of the response's impact on learning. Among the "cold" biases, some are due to ignoring relevant information, whereas some involve a decision or judgement being affected by irrelevant information or giving excessive weight to an unimportant but salient feature of the problem.
found that some children are better at delaying gratification than others are, and that the ability to do so is predictive of success later in life.
need to belong theory
The need for interpersonal attachments is a fundamental motive that has evolved for adaptive purposes. (Baumeister and Leory)
social comparison theory
We are motivated to have accurate information about others and ourselves. (Leon Festinger)
The phenomenon in which animals will stop eating relatively quickly if they have just one type of food to eat, but they will eat more if presented with a different type of food.
is the brain structure that most influences eating.
Damage to the ventromedial region (VMH)
causes a condition called hyperphagia. Damage to the lateral area (VH) is associated with a condition called aphagia.
The bloodstream is monitored for its glucose levels.
A set-point for body fat in which deviations from the set-point initiate compensatory behaviors to return to homeostasis.
found through surveys that women's sexual attitudes and behaviors were in many ways similar to those of men.
Sexual response cycle
A pattern of physiological responses during sexual activity.
is considered the most important brain region in stimulating sexual behavior.
Influence behaviors such as flirting, pursuing romantic interest, and dating.
Sexual strategies theory
Evolutionary theory that suggests men and women look for different qualities in their relationship partners because of gender-specific adaptive problems.
refers to a vague sense that people feel in certain ways and reflect people's perceptions of whether they have the personal resources necessary to meeting environmental demands. They are long-lasting emotional states that influence rather than interrupt thought and behavior.
Feelings that involve subjective evaluation, physiological processes, and cognitive beliefs.
Rules learned through socialization that dictate which emotions are suitable to given situations.
People use their current mood states to make judgments and appraisals, even if they do not know the sources of their moods.
Bodily reactions that arise from the emotional evaluation of an action's consequences.
Evolutionarily adaptive emotions that humans share across cultures; they are associated with specific biological and physical states.
Blends of primary emotions, including states such as remorse, guilt, submission, and anticipation.
James-Lange theory of emotion
Felt emotion is the result of perceiving specific patterns of bodily responses.
Facial feedback hypothesis
An implication of the James-Lange theory, claiming that facial expressions trigger the experience of emotions, not the other way around.
Cannon-Bard theory of emotion
The information from an emotion-producing stimulus is processed independently in cortical and in subcortical structures, causing the experience of two separate things at roughly the same time: an emotion (from cortex) and a physical reaction (from subcortex).
Two-factor theory of emotion
Whatever the person believes caused the emotion will determine how the person labels the emotion.
Misattribution of arousal
describes the process whereby people make a mistake in assuming what is causing them to feel aroused.
In an attempt to regulate mood, one attempts not to feel or respond to the emotion at all.
People think more about something after suppression than before.
Involves thinking about, elaborating, and focusing on undesired thoughts or feelings.
was never able to hold on to friendships because his family moved around a lot when he was younger. He was very shy. He is still shy, but found it personally enhancing to be the class clown. He took up acting and developed a malleable personality.
The characteristic thoughts, emotional responses, and behaviors that are relatively stable in an individual over time and across circumstances.
A characteristic; a dispositional tendency to act in a certain way over time and across circumstances.
Freudian theory that unconscious forces, such as wishes and motives, influence behavior.
According to Freud, the developmental stages that correspond to the pursuit of satisfaction of libidinal urges.
Lasts from birth to approximately 18 months, during which time pleasure is sought through the mouth; hungry infants experience relief when they breastfed and thus associate pleasure with sucking.
Lasts from age two to three, during which children are toilet trained, leading them to focus on the anus; the learning to control the bowels is the focus of this stage.
Lasts from age three to five, during which children direct their libidinal energies toward the genitals; children often discover the pleasure of rubbing their genitals during this time, although they have no sexual intent per se.
Children develop unconscious wishes to kill the one parent in order to claim the other, and they resolve this conflict through identification with the same-sex parent, taking on many of that parent's values and beliefs.
Libidinal urges are suppressed or channeled into doing schoolwork or building friendships.
Adolescents and adults attain mature attitudes about sexuality and adulthood; libidinal urges are centered on the capacity to reproduce and contribute to society.
In psychodynamic theory, the component of personality that is completely submerged in the unconscious and operates according to the pleasure principle.
In psychodynamic theory, the internalization of societal and parental standards of conduct.
In psychodynamic theory, the component of personality that tries to satisfy the wishes of the id while being responsive to the dictates of the superego.
Unconscious mental strategies the mind uses to protect itself form conflict and distress.
Approaches to studying personality that emphasize personal experience and belief systems; they propose that people seek personal growth to fulfill their human potential.
Approach pioneered by Carl Rodgers in which the emphasis is on people's personal understandings, or phenomenology.
Discrete categories based on global personality characteristics.
An approach to studying personality that focuses on the extent to which individuals differ in personality dispositions.
The idea that personality can be described using five factors: openness to experience, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism.
Person-centered approaches to studying personality that focus on individual lives and how various characteristics are integrated into unique persons.
Approaches to studying personality that focus on how people vary across common traits.
Personality tests that examine unconscious processes by having people interpret ambiguous stimuli.
Examples: Rorschach inkblot test, Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)
Relatively direct assessments of personality, usually based on information gathered through self-report questionnaires or observer ratings.
Examples: NEO Personality Inventory, California Q-Sort
The theory that behavior is determined more by situations than by personality traits.
Theorists who believe that behavior is determined jointly by underlying dispositions and situations.
Prison where American guards tortured and humiliated a group of Iraqi prisoners. (Psychologists say that these guards were probably normal people who just got caught up in an overwhelming situation that shaped their actions.)
Simulated the roles of prisoners and guards in a mock prison.
The evaluation of objects, events, or ideas.
Greater exposure to the item, and therefore greater familiarity with it, causes people to have more positive attitudes about the item.
Attitudes that people can report.
Attitudes that influence our feelings and behavior at an unconscious level.
An uncomfortable mental state due to conflicts between attitudes or between attitudes and behavior.
The active and conscious effort to change attitudes though the transmission of a message.
Elaboration likelihood model
A theory of how persuasive messages lead to attitude changes. See Figure 12.7, p. 529
The facial expressions, gait, gestures, mannerisms, and movements by which one communicates with others.
People's causal explanations for why events or actions occur.
Just world hypothesis
Victims must have done something to justify what happened to them.
Explanations that refer to internal characteristics, such as abilities, traits, moods, and effort.
Explanations that refer to external events, such as the weather, luck, accidents, or the actions of other people.
Fundamental attribution error
The tendency to overemphasize personal factors and underestimate situational factors in explaining behavior.
cognitive schemas that allow for easy, fast processing of information about people based on their membership in certain groups.
People's tendency to behave in ways that confirm their own or others' expectations.
The usually negative affective or attitudinal responses associated with stereotypes.
The inappropriate and unjustified treatment of people based solely on their group membership.
Ingroup vs. Outgroup
is a social group to which an individual feels as though he or she belongs as a member of the group. People tend to hold positive attitudes towards members of their own groups, a phenomenon known as ingroup bias. The term originates from social identity theory which grew out of the work of social psychologist Henri Tajfel. In sociology, an outgroup is a social group towards which an individual feels contempt, opposition, or a desire to compete. Members of outgroups may be subject to outgroup homogeneity biases, and generally people tend to privilege ingroup members over outgroup members in many situations.
The tendency for people to evaluate favorably and privilege members of the ingroup more than members of the outgroup.
one of the ways in which we succumb to our overriding motivation to fit into a group is by representing ourselves positively.
The mere presence of other people leads to increased arousal, which in turn favors the dominant response. If this is the correct response, performance is enhanced, but if it is the incorrect response, performance suffers.
The tendency for people to work less hard in a group than when working alone.
A phenomenon of low self-awareness, in which people lose their individuality and fail tot attend to personal standards.
Expected standards of conduct, which influence behavior.
The altering of one's opinions or behaviors to match those of others or to match social norms.
The tendency to agree to do things requested by others.
is a compliance tactic that involves getting a person to agree to a large request by first setting them up by having that person agree to a modest request.
Door in the face
technique is a persuasion method. Compliance with the request of concern is enhanced by first making an extremely large request that the respondent will obviously turn down, with a metaphorical slamming of a door in the persuader's face. The respondent is then more likely to accede to a second, more reasonable request than if this second request were made without the first, extreme request.
an item or service is offered at a lower price than is actually intended to be charged, after which the price is raised to increase profits.
The following of orders given by authority.
Any behavior or action that involves the intention to harm someone else.
Frustration aggression hypothesis
The extent to which people feel frustrated predicts the likelihood that they will be aggressive.
Tending to benefit others.
The providing of help when it is needed, without any apparent reward for doing so.
Bystander intervention effect
The failure to offer help by those who observe someone in need.