What are the two skeletal portions?
Axial Skeleton and Appendicular Skeleton
How many bones does the Axial Skeleton have? And what are they?
Axial Skeleton; SHIVERS= Skull, Hyoid, Vertebrae, Ears, Ribs and sternum.. 80 bones
How many bones are in the Appendicular skeleton and what are they?
LUL PG2= Lower Upper Limbs Pectoral/Pelvic Girdle squared... 126 bones
What are depressions and openings for?
Parts of joints or passage way for soft tissue
What are processes and what do they do?
Processes are projections or outgrowths/ they form joints and are attachment points for connective tissue (Ligaments and tendons)
What is a Foramen?
What is a Fossa?
shallow or slight impression
What is a Sulcus?
a grove (sulk)
What is a meatus?
What is a condyle?
a large, round protuberance
What is a facet?
A smooth flat surface
What is a trochanter?
VERY LARGE PROJECTION
what is a tuberosity?
a large, rounded roughened projection (a better grip for a tendon or ligament)
A bone greater in width than length is a
long bones are compact or spongy bones?
What is the opposite of compact bones?
This type of bone is spongy except for the surface..
What is an example of a short bone?
This type of bone has plates of compact bones enclosing spongy bone (it has two parallel plates and is used for attachments)
Flat bone like the sternum
The vertebrae is what type of bone?
This type of bone is found in tendons or ligaments and takes a lot of friction
T/F every individual bone is an organ?
Seven different tissues work together in the skeletal system what are they?
Bones, Cartilage, Dense connective tissue, Epithelium, Blood forming tissue, adipose , nervous tissue
What are the functions of the bone?
Supports and protects soft tissue (muscle tissue in the Heart), Serves as an attachment for muscles so we can move, storage and homeostasis of minerals like calcium and phosphate, Hemopoiesis (blood cell production in red bone marrow), Energy storage(the fat in yellow bone marrow)
The shaft is also the
the end of long bones are
between the epiphysis and diaphysis is the
The growth plate is also called the
What covers the end of long bones reduces friction and absorbs shock?
Where is marrow stored in the bone?
What lines the marrow cavity and is strong connective tissue?
The tough covering of the long bone the ...
What are the two layers of the periosteum and what purpose do they serve?
Fibrous layer- dense irregular CT
Osteogenic layer- bone cells and blood vessels are in this layer
They are thicker not longer
What is the strongest form of bone?
Compact or Dense
The individual units in compact bones are called ...
Compact bones have small spaces for what?
vessels and marrow
Are compact bones completely solid being the strongest form of bone?
Do all bones have compact bone?
Yes they are the external layer of ALL bones
What type of bone has no Osteons?
Does the epiphyses of long bones have compact or spongy bone?
What type of bone short or spongy is inside flat bones?
What are the different bone cells?
This type of bone cell form from fused monocytes, break down and resorb bone at the surfaces
This type of bone cell secretes matrix and collagen fibers, builds bone by letting out the matrix and the matrix crystalizes
This type of bone cell is an undifferentiated cell, is found in the inner layer of the periosteum and endosteum, can divide to replace itself or develop into an osteoblast
This type of bone cell can not secrete matrix and is responsible for nutrient intake and outtake
Are cells widely spaced in the matrix?
What is the break down of water, collagen fibers(tensile strength), and mineral salt crystals like hydroxyapatite and calcium carbonate in the Matrix?
25% water 25% collagen fibers and 50% mineral salt crystals like hydroxyapatite and calcium carbonate
Salts are deposited on collagen for strength to make lines stronger and crystalize what is this called?
calcification or mineralization
What do Osteons in compact bone have?
Lamellae, Central canal, Osteocytes, Connecting canaliculi
-is concentric rings of calcified matrix and older osteons
-It is partially removed during tissue remodeling ( its allined in lines of stress)
Blood, lymphatic vessels and nerves are stored here
What are found in lacunae spaces?
In the osteons in compact bone what has extracellular flud that will communicate with GAP junctions?
What type of bone is found in the epiphyses of long bones and is also inside flat bones?
What makes spongy bone lighter? Describe
Trabeculae which is thin plates of bone in latticework layers is arranged in lines of stress
This type of bone surrounds supports and protects red marrow in the spaces in between trabeculae ...
What supplies the periosteum with blood
This type of artery enters through the nutrient foramen, supplies the compact bone of the diaphysis, and supplies red marrow
These arteries supply red marrow to the epiphyses
The metaphyseal and epiphyseal arteries
Bone development that replaces cartilage by bone is
Endochondrial bone development
Endochondrial bone development
happens in fetal development more specific- the 6th week
bone replaces what in endochondrial bone development?
Cartilage model (the chondrocytes overgrow-> hypertrophy
When cells in midregion burst what happens?
the pH levels change and calcification is triggered chondrocyte death
perichondrium lays down periosteal bone collar, osteoblast form spongy trabeculae, osteoclast form medullary cavity what step is this in the endochondrial bone development?
Primary ossification center (b4 birth)
spongy bone forms without medullary cavity what step is this in the endochondrial bone development?
Secondary ossification center (around time of birth)
Where does bone grow in length?
the epiphyseal growth plates
What age do the growth plates close
18 F 25 M
How does the growth plate close?
cartilage cell stop dividing, bone replaces cartilage, the epiphyseal line is ossified
Appositional Growth grows the bone in ..
The riges of the periosteum form what
they form tunnels to form osteons (osteoclast carve out tunnels like Pacman!)
What affects bone growth?
Nutrition like calcium and phosphorus for bone growth, Vitamin C for collagen formation, Vitamin K and B12 for protein synthesis/ Hormones IGF promotes cell division in epi plate in childhood/ human growth hormone, thyroid, insulin/ Estrogen and testosterone @ puberty
What controls bone growth and bone remodeling?
Remodeling of bone is very important for what
What are four main reasons osteoclast break destroy old bone?
to form a leak-proof seal, secrete enzymes and acids beneath themselves, to release calcium and phosphorus into interstitial flud, carve out small tunnels
When bone increases its deposition of mineral salts and production of collagen fibers what is it responding to?
It is responding to mechanical stress and is altering its strength
Demineralization and collagen reduction weakens the bone what causes this?
No mechanical stress
This particular ion is involved with nerve and muscle cell function, blood clotting, enzyme function
Explain the Calcium Homeostasis cycle if the Ca+2 lvls fall
If the Ca+2 lvls fall the Parathyroid gland gene turns on and more PTH hormone is secreted, there is an increased activity involving the osteoclast, and the kidneys retain Ca+2 and produce calcitriol
Explain the Calcium homeostasis cycle if the Ca+2 lvs get too high
The calcitonin hormone secretes from the parafollicular cell in the thyroid, it inhibits osteoclast activity, increases bone formation by osteoblast
How many bones in the vertebrae column? And what are the sections?
What are the three ear bones?
How many bones are in the skull
22 (8 cranial and 14 facial)
What are the moveable bones in the skull?
Malius incus stapes and mandible
What is the immovable joint in the skull that holds the bones together?
What are the skull functions?
Protection of the brain (surfaces attach to meninges to stabilize brain, blood vessels and nerves) Facial bones form face, Muscle attachment site, supports sense organs
Name the 8 cranial bones
frontal, (2) parietal, (2) temporal, occipital, sphenoid, ethmoid
Name the four sutures in the skull
Coronal, Squamous, lambdoid, sagittal
The carotid foramen for arteries and the jugular foramen for the vein is found in what bone?
The foramen magnum (for the spinal cord), the occipital condyles (process that works with axis) and the external occipital protuberance (bump in back of head) Is all part of what particular bone?
This keystone bone is at the base of the skull, has lesser and greater wings, holds the pituitary gland with the sella turcica, and has the Pterygoid process to attach muscles for the jaw. What bone is this?
What bone in the skull has ethmoid sinuses, a superior and middle nasal tubinates, crista galli attachment to menings, cribriform plate and olfactory foramina (roof of nasal cavity) and forms the medial wall of the orbit, the supior part of the nasal septum and superior side walls of nasal cavity?
How many bones are in the face? And what are they?
14 bones 2 zygomatic 2 maxillae, 2 nasal, 2 palatine (roof of mouth), 2 inferior nasal conchae, 2 lacrimal, vomer and mandible.
an opening is a
a shallow depression is a
a groove is a
a tubelike passageway or canal is a
a large round protuberance
a smooth flat articular surface is a
very large projection is a
a large rounded, roughened projection is