chemical reactions that build up larger molecules from smaller one
chemical reactions the break down larger molecules into smaller ones
reactions that store energy
reactions that release energy
reaction in which water is removed to bond molecules together
are bonded together to form glycogen
reaction in which water is added to break molecular bonds
are broken down into amino acids
a group of lipids that stimulate anabolism and thus promote the growth of certain tissues
proteins that promote chemical reactions
a particular chemical on which an enzyme acts
inorganic substances that activate incomplete enzymes. examples include iron, copper, and zinc.
organic substances that activate incomplete enzymes. ex. include vitamins
the capacity to do work or cause change
a process which cells "burn" glucose to produce energy. It is also known as cellular respiration.
Cellular respiration of food molecules like glucose is necessary to transfer food energy into high energy carrying molecules called? The result is lost body hear.
respiration that is the first set of chemical reactions that break down glucose, and dont require oxygen.
where in the cell does anerobic respiration occur?
respiration that is the second phase of reactions that do require oxygen
where in the cell does aerobic respiration occur?
how many molecules of ATP are produced for every glucose molecule that is broken down through cellular respiration?
what molecule stores the instructions for making enzymes and other proteins
these instructions are known as?
a small portion of a DNA molecule that contains the genetic info. for making a particular protein.
two types of Nucleic Acid
the building blocks of nucleic acids
sugar, phosphate, base molecules
nucleotides consist of 3 parts?
the sequence of DNA nucleotide bases encodes the sequence of ? in a protein?
how many consecutive bases code for a particular amino acid?
the method of storing genetic info. in DNA is called ?
dna molecules that store the genetic code are found in the nucleus, however proteins are built in which organelle?
the type of RNA that copies the genetic code from DNA and carries the genetic code to the ribosome.
the process of mRNA copying the genetic code from the DNA molecule?
where in the cell does transcription occur?
a set of 3 nucleotides in a mRNA molecule that corresponds to a particular amino acid?
once the mRNA is in the ribosome it will act as a ? or template for the synthesis of protein molecules, a process called ?
in which organelle does translation occur
the type of RNA molecule that correctly aligns the proper amino acid along the mRNA as it passes through the ribosome
a special set of 3 nucleotides on tRNA that correspond to certain codons on mRNA. In this way, tRNA knows how to position the proper amino acid along the mRNA during translation.
once the protein is formed, it is packaged and secreted from the cell by which organelle?
each newly formed cell requires a copy of the parent cell's ? so that the new cell can make proteins like enzymes which are necessary to survive.
to accomplish this DNA molecules have the ability to duplicate during interphase through a process called?
mutations may occur spontaneously or may be induced by agents called?
examples of mutagens include?
also referred to as the anerobic phase of cellular respiration?
where does glycolysis occur?