Chapter 5 Histology

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True

Mesoderm Gives rise to muscle, bone, and blood.

True

Columnar Cells Cells lining the small intestine that show a brush border of microvilli in the apical surface.

False

Nonkeratinized cells exfoliate from the surface of the skin

True

The clear gel that usually surrounds cells is called interstitial fluid

True

Fibrocartilage is found in intervertebral discs

True

Smooth and cardiac muscle are under involuntary control

False

Blood consists of cells and a ground substance made of formed elements

False

Plasma cells produce the ground substance that forms the matrix of connective tissues.

False

Excitable cells respond to outside stimuli by means of changes in plasma membrane shape

True

The secretory product of a gland is produced by its parenchyma, not its stroma

True

Scar Tissue Helps hold an organ together but does not restore normal function.

fibrous

The four primary tissue types found in adult organs include all of the following except

ectoderm; nervous system and epidermis

The _______________ gives rise to the _______________.

cytosol

The clear gel inside a cell is called

Histological Section

A thin, stained slice of tissue mounted on a microscope is called a

longitudinal section

This image shows a

Epithelial tissue

_______________ lines body cavities, covers the body surface, and forms the lining of many organs.

simple columnar

An epithelium with all cells tall and narrow and with every cell touching the basement membrane is called ________________ .

epithelium and connective tissue.

The basement membrane is found between

Simple squamous

______________ epithelium allows for rapid diffusion of oxygen and carbon dioxide through the air sacs (alveoli) of the lungs.

simple cuboidal epithelium

Most kidney tubules are made of this tissue specialized for absorption and secretion

Stratified squamous; stratified columnar

________________ epithelium is the most widespread epithelium in the body, whereas _______________ epithelium is rare.

Eplithelial Tissue Location and Apperance

Epidermis, Inner lining of digestive tract, liver and other organs. Composed of layers of closely spaced cells. Thin extracellular material so thin not visible with a light microscope. No blood vessels. Lie on a loose connective tissue layer and depend on its blood vessels for nourishment and waste removal.

The basement membrane is found between

epithelium and connective tissue.

Simple Squamous

______________ epithelium allows for rapid diffusion of oxygen and carbon dioxide through the air sacs (alveoli) of the lungs.

Goblet

_____________ cells in simple columnar and pseudostratified columnar epithelia produce protective mucous coatings over the mucous membranes

simple columnar; small intestine

A brush border of microvilli belongs to _______________ epithelium found in the ______________.

pseudostratified columnar

All cells in this tissue reach the basement membrane and only cells that reach the free surface have cilia

Goblet

___________ cells in simple columnar and pseudostratified columnar epithelia produce protective mucous coatings over the mucous membranes

simple columnar; small intestine

A brush border of microvilli belongs to _______________ epithelium found in the ______________.

Pseudostratified Columnar

All cells in this tissue reach the basement membrane and only cells that reach the free surface have cilia

Transitional; stratified squamous

__________________ epithelium found in the bladder resembles ______________ epithelium, but the apical cells are rounded, not flattened.

Nonkeratinized; vagina

_______________ epithelium provides a moist and slippery surface and is well suited to resist stress, as in the ________________.

Simple squamous; stratified squamous

__________________ epithelium is associated with rapid transport of substances through a membrane, whereas __________________ epithelium is associated with resistance to abrasion.

interstital fluid is so scarce that it is not visible with a light microscope.

These features are common to all connective tissues except

Areolar; cartilage

__________________ tissue is highly vascular, whereas _______________ is not.

a calcified matrix

These are features that fibrous connective tissues have in commone except

Elastic Cartilage

the shape of a person's external ear is given by

hyaline cartilage

These are all types of fibrous connective tissues except

Adipose tissue

New triglycerides are constantly synthesized and stored and other are hydolyzed and released into circulation mostly from cells in

Chondroblasts; fibroblasts

__________________ secrete the cartilage rubbery matrix, whereas ________________ produce the fibers and ground substance that form the matrix of fibrous connective tissue

Hyperextensible joints

Marfan syndrome is a hereditary defect in elastin fibers. People with this syndrome have

collagen

All these substances account for the gelatinous consistency of connective tissue ground substance except

tendons, ligament and the deeper portion of the skin

Collagenous fibers are very abundant in

dense regular and dense irregular connective tissues

Fibroblasts and protein fibers are associated with both

holding water and maintaining electrolyte balance

Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) help give the ground substance some of its qualities such as

Blood; transport nutrients to the tissues

__________________ is found in the heart, and one of its functions is to __________________.

Areolar tissue

______________ exhibits a lot of apparently empty space, and is found in many serous membranes.

Muscular and nervous; excitable

__________________ tissues respond quickly to outside stimuli by means of changes in membrane potential, thus they are called __________________ tissues

neuroglia

Nervous tissue consists predominantly of two cell types, neurons and

smooth muscle produces waves of contractions that propel material through the digestive tract

Astronauts in zero gravity are able to move food through their digestive tracts because

striated and voluntary.

Skeletal muscle is described as

*E. complex of macromolecules; part of a cell; entire cell

A connective tissue fiber refers to a(n) __________________, a nerve fiber refers to a(n) ____________________, and a muscle fiber refers to a(n) _______.

tight junctions

In the intestine, __________________ ensure(s) that most digested nutrients pass through the epithelial cells and not between them.

Endocrine glands; hormones; the blood

__________________ secrete __________________ into __________________.

Mucous; serous

__________________ glands secrete mucin, which combines with water and form a thick and sticky product, whereas __________________ glands produce a relatively watery fluid

Endocrine glands; hormones; the blood

__________________ secrete __________________ into __________________.

tight junctions

In the intestine, __________________ ensure(s) that most digested nutrients pass through the epithelial cells and not between them.

Compound acinar glands

__________________ glands have branched ducts and secretory cells that form sacs at one end of the ducts.

mucous membrane (mucosa)

This membrane lines passageways that open to the exterior environment.

hypertrophy

After six months of lifting weights at the gym you notice that some of your muscles have increased in size. This increase in size is due to _______ of muscle cells.

mesoderm; mesenchyme

This primary germ layer is the middle layer, called ______, and gives rise to a gelatinous material called ________________, which gives rise to different types of connective tissue such as bone, muscle, and blood.

totipotent

Most biologists see embryonic stem (ES) cells as a possible treatment for diseases that result from the loss of functional cells. This possibility is based on the fact that ES cells are _______________ stem

metaplasia

The pseudostratified columnar epithelium of the bronchi in smokers may transform into stratified squamous epithelium. This exemplifies

phagocytize and digest tissue debris

Macrophages __________________ in the healing of a skin wound.

apoptosis

It is normal for breasts to shrink after lactation ceases. This is a consequence of __________________ in human breast cells.

fibrosis

The replacement of damaged tissue with scar tissue is called

fibrous

The four primary tissue types found in adult organs include all of the following except

ectoderm; nervous system and epidermis

The _______________ gives rise to the _______________.

cytosol

The clear gel inside a cell is called

simple columnar

An epithelium with all cells tall and narrow and with every cell touching the basement membrane is called ________________

Stratified squamous; stratified columnar

________________ epithelium is the most widespread epithelium in the body, whereas _______________ epithelium is rare.

Merocrine; holocrine

__________________ glands (such as tear glands) have vesicles that release their secretion by exocytosis, whereas __________________ glands (such as oil-producing glands) secrete a mixture of disintegrated cells and their products

epithelium and lamina propria

The membrane that lines digestive, respiratory, urinary and reproductive tracts consists of

False

Dendrites in a neuron send outgoing signals to other cells.

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