Unit 1 and 2 Biology 1

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Biology 1 Unit 1 and 2 Terms, Holland Christian Bredeweg

Observation

use of one of more of the senses-sight, hearing, touch, smell, and sometimes taste-to gather information.

Inference

logical interpretation based on prior knowledge and experience.

theory

well-tested explanation that unifies a broad range of observations

hypothesis

possible explanation for a set of observations or possible answer to a scientific question.

controlled variables

factor in an experiment that a scientist purposely keeps the same

independent variable

factor in an experiment that a scientist purposely changes; also known as a responding variable.

dependent variable

factor in an experiment that a scientist wants to observe, which may change because of the manipulated variable; also known as a responding variable.

fact

A piece of information known to be true because it has been verified by observation or measurement, NOT based on inference.

scientific method

a method of investigation involving observation and theory to test scientific hypotheses

hypotheses

a proposal intended to explain certain facts or observations

EDD

a diagram used by scientists, to design an experiment.

glossary

an alphabetical list of technical terms

index

an alphabetical listing of names and topics along with page numbers where they are discussed

bias

a partiality that prevents objective consideration of an issue or situation

sources

people or documents from which you get information

natural laws

principles that govern nature

homeostasis

process by which organisms maintain a relatively stable internal environment

acid

compound that forms hydrogens (H+) in solution

base

compound that produces hydroxide ions (OH-) in solution

pH

the concentration of hydrogen ions (H+) in solution; ranges from 0-14

H+ concentration

pH measures this-the acidity or alkalinity of a solution

organic compound

any compound of carbon and another element or a radical, covalent bonding, can be large with many atoms, associated with living things

molecule

smallest unit of most compounds

polymerization

a chemical reaction in which monomers are binded together

polymer

large compound formed from combinations of many monomers

carbohydrate

compound made up of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms; major source of energy for the human body

monomer

small unit that can join together with other small units to form polymers

mono/di/polysaccharide

sugar molecules

hydrolysis

a chemical reaction in which water reacts with a compound to produce other compounds

dehydration synthesis

A chemical reaction in which two molecules covalently bond to each other with the removal of a water molecule.

lipids

macromolecule made mainly from carbon and hydrogen atoms; includes fats, oils, and waxes

fat

lipid; made up of fatty acids and glycerol

hydrogenated/trans fats

hydrogen has been added to liquid oils in order to make lid fats

saturated fat

fat in which all three fatty acid chains contain the maximum possible number of hydrogen atoms

unsaturated fat

A lipid made from fatty acids that have at least one double bond between carbon atoms

phospholipid

any of various compounds composed of fatty acids and phosphoric acid and a nitrogenous base

sterols/steroids

A type of lipid based on cholesterol; includes testosterone and estrogen.

protein

macromolecule that contains carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen; needed by the body for growth and repair and to make up enzymes

amino acid

compound with amino group (-NH2) on one end and a carboxyl group (-COOH) on the other end

enzyme

protein that acts as a biological catalyst

catalyst

substance that speeds up the rate of a chemical reaction

substrate

reactant of an enzyme-catalyzed reaction

active site

the part of an enzyme or antibody where the chemical reaction occurs

nucleic acid

macromolecule containing hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, and phosphorus

nucleotide

monomer of nucleic acids made up of a 5-carbon sugar, a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base

DNA/RNA

types of nucleic acids

cellulose

a polysaccharide that is the chief constituent of all plant tissues and fibers

maltose

a white crystalline sugar formed during the digestion of starches

sucrose

a complex carbohydrate found in many plants and used as a sweetening agent (glucose+fructose)

starch

A storage polysaccharide in plants consisting entirely of glucose

glycogen

The form in which the liver and muscles store glucose; the animal equivalent of starch.

lactose

a sugar comprising one glucose molecule linked to a galactose molecule

glucose

a monosaccharide sugar that has several forms; the form of sugar that circulates in the blood and provides the major source of energy for body tissues. When its level is low, we feel hunger.

salivary amylase

in mouth, released by salivary glands and begins chemical breakdown of starch

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