Nutrition - Ch 6

Created by jcasey1992 

Upgrade to
remove ads

52 terms

cis fatty acid

An unsaturated fatty acid with a bent carbon chain. Most naturally occurring unsaturated fatty acids are these.

Omega-3 fatty acid

An essential fatty acid; alpha-linolenic acid is the major type

Omega-6 fatty acid

An essential fatty acid; linoleic acid is the primary type

Trans fatty acid

An unsaturated fatty acid with a straighter chain than a cis fatty acid, usually as a result of hydrogenation; these fatty acids are more solid than cis fatty acids

Adipocytes

Fat cells

Adipose tissue

Body fat tissue

Alpha linolenic acid

An essential omega-3 fatty acid that contains 18 carbon atoms and 3 carbon-carbon double bonds (18:3)

Atherosclerosis

A type of "hardening of the arteries" in which cholesterol and other substances in the blood build up in the walls of arteries. As the process continues, the arteries to the heart may narrow, cutting down the flow of oxygen-rich blood and nutrients to the heart

C-reactive protein (CRP)

A protein released by the body in response to acute injury, infection, or other inflammatory stimuli. It is associated with future cardiovascular events

Cancer

A term for diseases in which abnormal cells divide without control. These cells can invade nearby tissues and can spread through the bloodstream and lymphatic system to other parts of the body

Cardiovascular disease (CVD)

General term for all disorders affecting the heart and blood vessels

Chain length

The number of carbons that a fatty acid contains.

Cholesterol

A waxy lipid (sterol) whose chemical structure contains multiple hydrocarbon rings

Choline

A nitrogen-containing compound that is part of phosphatidylcholine, a phospholipid. It also is part of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. The body can synthesize it from the amino acid methionine

Chylomicron

A large lipoprotein formed in intestinal cells following the absorption of dietary fats. It has a central core of triglycerides and cholesterol surrounded by phospholipids and proteins

Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA)

A polyunsaturated fatty acid in which the position of the double bonds has moved, so that a single bond alternates with two double bonds

Diglyceride

A molecule of glycerol combined with two fatty acids

Eicosanoids

A class of hormonelike substances formed in the body from long-chain essential fatty acids

Essential fatty acids (EFAs)

Fatty acids that the body needs but cannot synthesize and must obtain from the diet

Fat replacers

Compounds that imitate the functional and sensory properties of fats, but contain less available energy than fats

Fatty acids

Compounds containing a long hydrocarbon chain with a carboxyl group (COOH) at one end and a methyl group (CH3) at the other end

Glycerol

The backbone of mono-, di-, and triglycerides; alone, it is a thick, smooth liquid

High-density lipoproteins (HDL)

The blood lipoproteins that contain high levels of protein and low levels of triglycerides. Synthesized primarily in the liver and small intestine, it picks up cholesterol released from dying cells and other sources and transfers it to other lipoproteins. It sometimes is called "good cholesterol"

Hydrogenation

A chemical reaction in which hydrogen atoms are added to a fat; it produces more saturated fatty acids and converts some unsaturated fatty acids from a cis form to a trans form

Hypercholesterolemia

High blood cholesterol (total cholesterol)

Intermediate-density lipoproteins (IDL)

The lipoproteins formed when lipoprotein lipase strips some of the triglycerides from VLDL

Lanugo

Soft, downy hair that covers a normal fetus from the fifth month but is shed almost entirely by the time of birth. It also appears on semistarved individuals who have lost much of their body fat, serving as insulation normally provided by body fat

Lecithin

In the body, a phospholipid with the nitrogen-containing component choline. In foods, it is a blend of phospholipids with different nitrogen-containing components

Linoleic acid

An essential omega-6 fatty acid that contains 18 carbon atoms and 2 carbon-carbon double bonds (18:2); a thin liquid at room temperature

Lipoprotein

A complex that transports lipids in the lymph and blood. These consist of a central core of triglycerides and cholesterol surrounded by a shell composed of proteins, cholesterol, and phospholipids. The various types differ in size, composition, and density

Lipoprotein a [Lp(a)]

A substance that consists of an LDL "bad cholesterol" part plus a protein (apoprotein a) whose exact function is currently unknown

Lipoprotein lipase

The major enzyme responsible for the breakdown of lipoproteins and triglycerides in the blood

Low-density lipoproteins (LDL)

The cholesterol-rich lipoproteins that result from the breakdown and removal of triglycerides from intermediate-density lipoprotein. This is sometimes is called "bad cholesterol"

Metabolic syndrome

A cluster of at least three of the following risk factors for heart disease: hypertriglyceridemia (high blood triglycerides), low HDL cholesterol, hyperglycemia (high blood glucose), hypertension (high blood pressure), and excess abdominal fat

Micelles

Tiny emulsified fat packets. They are composed of emulsifier molecules (phospholipids) oriented with their fat-soluble part facing inward and their water-soluble part facing outward toward the surrounding aqueous environment

Monoglyceride

A molecule of glycerol combined with one fatty acid

Monounsaturated fatty acid

A fatty acid in which the carbon chain contains one double bond

Nonessential fatty acids

Fatty acids that your body can make when they are needed. It is not necessary to consume them in the diet

Obesity

Excessive accumulation of body fat leading to a body weight in relation to height that is substantially greater than some accepted standard. BMI at or above 30 kg/m2

Olestra

A fat replacer made from a sucrose backbone with six to eight fatty acids attached. The fatty acid arrangement prevents breakdown by the digestive enzyme lipase, so the fatty acids are not absorbed. It can withstand heat and is stable at frying temperatures. Its trade name is Olean

Oxidation

Oxygen attaches to the double bonds of unsaturated fatty acids. It causes fats to become rancid

Phosphate group

A chemical group that contains phosphate (-PO4) attached to a larger molecule. Attaching this, along with two fatty acids, to a glycerol backbone forms a phospholipid

Phospholipids

Compounds that consist of a glycerol molecule bonded to two fatty acid molecules and a phosphate group with a nitrogen-containing component. These have both water-soluble and fat-soluble regions, which make them good emulsifiers

Phytosterols

Sterols found in plants. These are poorly absorbed by humans and reduce intestinal absorption of cholesterol. They recently have been introduced as a cholesterol-lowering food ingredient

Polyunsaturated fatty acid

A fatty acid in which the carbon chain contains two or more double bonds

Saturated fatty acid

A fatty acid completely filled by hydrogen, with all carbons in the chain linked by single bonds

Squalene

A cholesterol precursor found in whale liver and plants

Sterols

A category of lipids that includes cholesterol. These are hydrocarbons with several rings in their structures

Subcutaneous fat

Fat stores under the skin

Unsaturated fatty acid

A fatty acid in which the carbon chain contains one or more double bonds

Very-low-density lipoproteins (VLDL)

The triglyceride-rich lipoproteins formed in the liver. This enters the bloodstream and is gradually acted upon by lipoprotein lipase, releasing triglyceride to body cells

Visceral fat

Fat stores that cushion body organs

Please allow access to your computer’s microphone to use Voice Recording.

Having trouble? Click here for help.

We can’t access your microphone!

Click the icon above to update your browser permissions above and try again

Example:

Reload the page to try again!

Reload

Press Cmd-0 to reset your zoom

Press Ctrl-0 to reset your zoom

It looks like your browser might be zoomed in or out. Your browser needs to be zoomed to a normal size to record audio.

Please upgrade Flash or install Chrome
to use Voice Recording.

For more help, see our troubleshooting page.

Your microphone is muted

For help fixing this issue, see this FAQ.

NEW! Voice Recording

Click the mic to start.

Create Set