PS 101: Chapter 4

44 terms by mhaapala18 

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Spinal chord

the central nervous system is made up of the brain and this

Motor neurons

the nervous system comprises three major types of neurons: sensory neurons, interneurons, and this

sympathetic division

the part of the autonomic nervous system is thought of as the "fight or flight" system

Cerebral Cortex

this is a thin "bark" of neurons in the forebrain that is thought to be the most evolved of brain regions

Myelin Sheath

the insulation around axons made of glial cells that allow for faster transmission of nerve impulses and is also called the "white matter" in the brain; MAKES NERVE IMPULSE MOVE FASTER/MORE EFFICIENT

Serotonin

this NT is involved in mood regulation, aggression, sleep, and is involved in eating disorders, OCD and depression

Limbic System

a part of the forebrain that is associated with emotion, memory, and goal-directed behavior; includes the hippocampus and the amygdala

Thalamus

the brain's sensory "switchboard" serving as a relay center for incoming sensory info

Broca's Area

located in the frontal lobe of the brain and is most implicated in speech formation

Action potential

the result of positively charged sodium ions entering a neuron followed by positively charged potassium ions flowing out

Neurons

generate electricity that creates nerve pulses; building blocks of nervous system; release NTs

Soma

cell body; houses the nucleus

Dendrites

collect messages from neighboring neurons

Axon

long tail-like extension; carries/conducts nerve impulses

Synaptic vesicle

where NTs are housed

Glutamate

most common 1 of 2 NT; rapidly excites neurons, increasing likelihood of communication; associated with learning and memory and schizophrenia

GABA

most common 2 of 2 NT; main inhibitory NT dampening neural activity; anti-anxiety meds bind to GABA receptors; associated with learning, memory, and sleep

Acetylcholine

NT associated with muscle contraction, cortical arousal, selected attention, sleep, memory

Norepinephrine

NT associated with brain arousal, mood, hunger, sleep, depression, stress, panic disorders

Dopamine

NT associated with emotional arousal, risky behavior, motor function, Parkinson's disease, depression, Schizophrenia

Serotonin

NT associated with mood, body temp, aggression, sleep cycles, depression, eating disorders, OCD

Nervous System

CNS:
a. brain
b. spinal cord
Peripheral N. Sys:
a. autonomic
--sympathetic division
--parasympathetic division
Somatic NS

Sensory, Motor, Inter

types of neurons

Somatic N.S.

sensory ns transmit messages; motor Ns send messages from CNS to muscles

Autonomic N.S.

senses body's internal functions, controls glands, controls smooth muscles of hear, blood vessels, stomach, intestines

Sympathetic N.S.

Activation/arousal

Parasympathetic N.S.

slows down body processes, maintains "homestasis"

Hindbrain

lowest, most primitave level of brain; in CNS

Brain Stem

supports vital life functions

Cerebellum

muscle movement/coordination and memory; regulation of blance

Midbrain

central role in consciousness, sleep, attention, arousal

Forebrain

most advanced region

Cerebrum

2 largest hemispheres; outer portion of forebrain; HIGHLY INVOLVED WITH THINKING, LEARNING, EMOTIONS

Hypothalamus

motivation and emotion; regulates basic biological needs; linked to endocrine system

HPA axis

Hypothalamus Pituitary Adrenal axis

Hippocampus

involved in forming and retrieving memories

Amygdala

aggression, fear, sex drive

Frontal, Parietal, Occipital, Temporal

4 lobes of cerebral cortex

Frontal Lobe

primary motor cortex; Broca's area

Parietal Lobe

Somatic sensory cortex, receives sensory iput that gives rise to our sensations

Occipital Lobe

primary visual cortex

Temporal lobe

primary auditory cortex, Wernicke's area

Wernicke's Area

primarily involved in speech comprehension

Corpus callosum

Neural bridge consisting of whie myelinated fibers that acts as a communication link between 2 hemispheres

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