What are concepts?
They are the building blocks of thinking. Concepts are countless objects events people in our world and we as humans need to simplify it to think
What mnemonic device are concepts like?
A concept of a chair would include what things?
All chairs, high chairs, dentist's chair, lazy-boy, desk chair, etc.
What is a prototype?
Best example or mental image that comes to mind when a category id mentioned
What is most peoples prototype for a bird?
The American Red Robin
What are the ways to solve problems successfully?
Trial and Error, Algorithm, Heuristics, and Insight
What is Trial and Error?
Trying different systems until the solution is found
What are algorithms?
Step-by-step process that guarantees a solution. They are tedious and time consuming
What are heuristics?
Short-cuts that allow us to make judgments and solve problems efficiently. The downfall to this method is you are more likely to make mistakes
What is insight?
Sudden and often novel realization of the solution to the problem
What are the ways problems are unsuccessfully solved?
Confirmation bias, fixation, mental set, and functional fixedness
What is confirmation bias?
Our tendency to only search for information that confirms our beliefs and often ignore info that might refute those beliefs. People often become very defensive against new information that might prove their current beliefs wrong
What is fixation?
The inability to see a problem in a new light
What is mental set?
Tendency to approach a problem in a particular way that has worked in the past but may not be helpful in the present situation
What is functional fixedness?
The tendency to think of things only in terms of their usual functions. (space pen, Russia used a pencil)
What are the 2 kinds of heuristics?
Representativeness, and availability
What is representativeness heuristics?
Judging the likelihood of something based on how well it seems to represent or match a particular prototype
What is availability heuristics?
When people predict the tendency of an event based on how wasily an example can be brought to mind.
What can heuristics lead to?
What is overconfidence?
Our tendency to overestimate the accuracy of our knowledge and judgments
What is framing?
The way an issue is posed
What is belief bias?
The tendency for our beliefs to distort of logical reasoning
What is the belief perseverance phenomenon?
The tendency to cling our beliefs even after the basis on which they were formed has been directed
What are the building blocks of language?
Phonemes, morphemes, and grammar
What are phonemes?
The smallest distinctive unit of sound
What are morphemes?
The smallest unit that carries meaning
What is grammar?
A system of rules that enable us to communicate with a nd understand others
How many words each year do kids from the age of 1 till high school graduation learn?
How many new words a day do we learn?
13 new words a day
How many stages of language development are there?
What are the ages of the pre stage?
0 to 4 months
What happens in the pre-stage?
In fantis = latin for no speaking, there is no language at all in this stage
What are the ages for stage 1?
4 to about 10 months
What happens in stage 1?
This is the babbling stage. The sounds babies make during this stage do not sound like any household language. You could not tell the parents language by listening to a baby babble. Around 10 months the babble begins to resemble a household language
Can deaf babies babble too?
Yes, they babble through hand gestures
What are the ages of stage 2?
1 to 2 years old
What happens in stage 2?
One-word stage, child will learn to use sounds to communicate meaning
What are the ages of stage 3?
Starts around 2 but leaves at no definite time
What happens in stage 3?
The two-word stage, child speaks in 2 word sentences but they fallow the syntax rules. These sentences contain mostly verbs and adjectives are typically first
What happens after stage 3?
Whenever a child leaves the Two-Word stage, (typically early elementary school), their language will rapidly develop into longer, complete sentences
Was skinner nature or nurture?
What did skinner believe about nurture?
Children imitate what they hear around them and their needs to be positive reinforcement when the child does it right
What did Noam Chomsky believe?
We learn grammar and language too quickly to base it solely on learning principles. We all have the appropriate building blocks for language built right into us...we just need to be exposed to our particular language and we will soak it right up
What is intelligence?
The ability to learn from experience, solve problems, and use knowledge to adapt to new situations
How do we assess intelligence?
An intelligence test
What is an intelligence test?
Our instrument for assessing a person's mental abilities and comparing them with the abilities of other people
What does g factor mean?
Who made general intelligence?
What is the g factor?
The intelligence that underlies all of our intelligent mental behavior
What is savant syndrome?
A condition in which a person otherwise limited in mental ability has an exceptional specific skill such as computation drawing or memory
What is emotional intelligence?
The ability to perceive express understand and regulate emotion
What are the 5 components that make a person creative?
Expertise of the knowledge that's out there, Imaginative thinking skills, A venturesome personality, Intrinsic motivation, and A creative environment
What is expertise of the knowledge that's out there?
The more you, the more you have to work with to create novel ideas
What are imaginative thinking skills?
The ability to see things in a new way
Who developed the first intelligence test?
Alfred Binet and Theodore Simon in france in 1904
What is the objective of an intelligence test?
To seek out those children who were likely to have difficulties in regular classes
What is mental age?
The chronological age that corresponds with performance on an intelligence test
What did lewis terman do?
Revised Binet and Simon's test
What did Stanfors-Binet do?
Revised again, we still use this version today
What did William stern do?
Derived the IQ formula
What is the IQ formula?
(mental age)/(chronological age)×100
What did David Wechsler make?
The WAIS and WISC intelligence scales for adults and childrens
What are aptitude tests?
Designed to predict future performance
What are achievement test?
Designed to assess what you have already learned
What is reliability?
The extent to which a test produces consistent results
What do you do to check for reliability?
Retest people using either the same test or another form of it; if the 2 scores correlate, then the test is reliable
What is validity?
The extent to which a test measures what it is supposed to
What is content validity?
The extent to which a test assesses the specific behavior of interest
What is predictive validity?
The extent to which a test predicts the behavior it is designed to predict
Are the standardized intelligence tests we use today designed to serve one group more than another?
Cultural differences Education background Racial differences
What is the Mensa society?
Exclusive society founded in 1946 for people with high intelligence
What is motivation?
A need or desire that directs behavior towards goal oriented behavior
What is intrinsic motivation?
Internal to the person
What is extrinsic motivation?
For something outside of the person
What is the instinct theory?
Stated that motivation is entirely based on generic programming/instincts and thus we all have the same basic motivations
What is an instinct?
Complex unlearned behavior that is a fixed pattern in a species
What is the drive-reduction theory?
The idea that a physiological need (such as hunger or thirst) creates an aroused, tensed state that drives an organism to satisfy the need
What is maslow's hierarchy of needs?
Self-actualization needs, esteem, belongingness, safety, and physiological needs
What are physiological needs?
Need to satisfy hunger nd thirst bodily comforts, etc.
What are safety needs?
Need to feel out of danger
What are belongingness needs?
Need to love and be loved by others and be accepted somewhere; needed to avoid loneliness
What are esteem needs?
Need to achieve be competent gain approval nd recognition
What are self actualization needs?
Need to live up to one's full potential, find self fulfillment, few people reach this stage
What is emotion?
A mix of physiological activation, expressive behaviors, conscious experience
What is physiological activation?
Usually at an autonomic level
What is expressive behavior?
Humans often communicate without language, 7 basic emotions most often identified from facial expressions
What is conscious experience?
Have an experience that brings out an emotion
What is the James-Lange theory?
Eventà Physiological Change à Psychological Experience
What is the cannon bard theory?
Critiqued James-Lange theory: different emotions can have the same physiological state; physiological changes are too slow to trigger emotion
What is Schachter's two-factor theory?
To experience emotion, one must be physically aroused and cognitively label the arousal We don't automatically know when we are happy, angry, etc. We label our emotions by considering situational cues. Event à Physiological Change à Cognitive Label à Emotion
What is a catharsis?
What is the fell-good do-good phenomenon?
People's tendency to be helpful when already in a good mood. People who are happy perceive the world as safer, make decisions more easily, are more cooperative, and live healthier, more satisfied lives. So, when we feel happy we are more likely and willing to help others