Unit 6 Key Terms

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Agricultural Origins

Carl Sauer theorized that this began in an area north of the Bay of Bengal when people began cultivating plants.

Agriculture

The purposeful tending of crops and livestock in order to produce food and fiber.

Animal Domestication

When animals are tamed and used for food and profit.

Farming

The practice of cultivating the land or raising stock.

First Agricultural Revolution

Dating back 10,000 years, the First Agricultural Revolution achieved plant domestication and animal domestication.

Hunting and Gathering

The killing of wild animals and fish as well as the gathering of fruits, roots, nuts, and other plants for sustenance.

Metallurgy

The science of working with metals.

Plant Domestication

When people cultivate crops for agriculture.

Second Agricultural Revolution

A period of technological change from the 1600s to mid 1900s that started in Western Europe beginning with preindustrial improvements like crop rotation.

Shifting Cultivation

Cultivation of crops in tropical forest clearings in which the forest vegitation has been removed by cutting and burning.

Subsistence Farmers

Farmers who produce only enough food to meet the needs of their own and of their households.

Third Agricultural Revolution

A period of technological change which began in the 1960s with the production of an improved rice hybrid called IR8 and characterized by the use of biotechnology.

Thünian Patterns

Landscape patterns that connects with the Von Thunen Model.

Brick

A traditional building material made of hard, oven-baked or sun-baked blocks of mud shaped into standard sizes.

Cadastral System

Survey system that determines the value, extent, and ownership of land for purposes of taxation.

Diffusion Routes

The spatial trajectory through which the cultural traits or other phenomena spread.

Dispersed Settlement

In contrast to agglomerated or nucleated settlement, characterized by a much lower density of population and the wide spacing of individual homesteads.

Domestic Architecture

The first kind of buildings that were built in domestic areas.

Folk-Housing Region

A reigion in which the housing stock predominantly reflects styles of building that particular to the culture of the people who have long inhabited the area.

Functional Differentiation

A mode of distinguishing things or arrangements based on the purposes or activities to which they are devoted.

Hamlet

A community of people smaller than a village.

Long-Lot Survey

System that divided land into narrow parcels stretching back from rivers,roads, or canals.

Maladaptive Diffusion

Diffusion in which image takes precedence over practicality.

Metes and Bounds Survey

A system of land surveying east of the Appalachian Mountains. Depends on descriptions of land ownership and natural features.

Nucleated Settlement

A compact closely packed settlement sharply demarcated from adjoining farmland.

Primogeniture

System where the eldest son in a family, or in exceptional cases, a daughter inherits all of the parent's land.

Rectangular Land Survey

The system was used by the US Land Office Survey to parcel land west of the Appalachian Mountains.

Township and Range System

A rectangular land division scheme designed by Thomas Jefferson to disperse settlers evenly across farmlands of the US interior.

Village

A community of people smaller than a town.

Wattle

Traditional dwelling built using poles and sticks that are woven tightly together and then plastered with mud.

Agribusiness

A general term for large-scale, mechanized industrial agriculture that is controlled by corporate interests.

Biotechnology

The use of genetically engineered crops in agriculture and DNA manipulation in livestock in order to increase production.

Commercial Agriculture

Agriculture undertaken primarily to generate products for sale off the farm.

Dairying

An agricultural activity involving the raising of livestock, most commonly cows and goats, for dairy products such as milk, cheese, and butter.

Green Revolution

the recently successful development of higher yield, fast-growing varieties of rice and other cereals in certain developing countries.

Livestock Ranching

The raising of domesticated animals for the produciton of meat and byproducts.

Luxury Crops

Non-subsistence crops such as tea, cacao, coffee, and tobacco.

Mediterranean Agriculture

Specialized farming that occurs only in areas where the dry summer Mediterranean climate prevails such as grapes, olives, figs, citrus, fruits, dates.

Organic Agriculture

Crops produced without the use of synthetic or industrially produced pesticides and fertilizers.

Plantation Agriculture

Production system based on a large estate owned by an individual, family, or corporation and organized to produce a cash crop.

Agent

Infectious organism that causes disease.

AIDS

A serious disease of the immune system transmitted through blood products.

Aquaculture

The use of a river segment or an artificial body of water such as a pond for the raising and harvesting of food products.

Bilharzia

An infestation with or a resulting infection caused by a parasite of the genus Schistosoma.

Caloric Intake

Data that shows the amount of calories the population of an area takes in during 24 hours.

Child Mortality Rate

A figure that describes the number of children that die between the first and fifth years of their lives in a given population.

Cholera

An acute intestinal infection caused by ingestion of contaminated water or food.

Chronic Disease

A disease that develops gradually and continues over a long period of time.

Contagious Disease

A disease that can be transmitted among people, either through direct contact or through a vector.

Dietary Balance

Calories alone does not determine a balanced diet, but necessary requirements for the body to function and survive.

Endemic

A disease that is particular to a locality or region.

Epidemic

A sudden outbreak leads to a high percentage of cases and a large number of deaths in a region.

Genetic Diseases

Diseases caused by variation or mutation of a gene or group of genes in a human.

Hidden Hunger

Getting enough calories but not enough nutrition.

Hosts

The organism in which the parasite lives in or on.

Infectious Disease

A disease transmitted only by a specific kind of contact.

Influenza

Highly infectious respiratory disease caused by a virus.

Kwashiorkor

Tropical disease of infants due to protein deficiency.

Life Expectancy

A figure indicating how long, on average, a person may be expected to live.

Malaria

A disease caused by mosquitoes implanting parasites in the blood.

Malnutrition

Condition of ill health resulting froom the deficiency or improper foodstuffin the diet.

Marasmus

A condition caused by a diet low in calories and protein.

Medical Geography

The study of health and diseases with geographic perspective.

Miracle Rice

High yielding variety of rice, developed in the Phillipines in the 60s, widely planted in Asia.

Pandemic

An outbreak of a disease that spreads worldwide.

Reservior

Long-term host of the pathogen of an infectious disease.

River Blindness

Caused by a parasitic worm transmitted by the black fly.

Vector

Any agent that carries and transmits a disease.

Yellow Fever

Disease caused by stegomyia mosquito.

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