The government-protected rights of individuals against arbitrary or discriminatory treatment by governments or individuals.
One of the three Civil War Amendments; specifically bans slavery and involuntary servitude in the United States
Laws denying most legal rights to newly freed slaves; passed by southern states following the Civil War
One of the three Civil War Amendments; guarantees equal protection and due process of the law to all U.S. citizens.
One of the three Civil War Amendments; specifically enfranchised newly freed male slaves.
Jim Crow laws
Laws enacted by southern states that discriminated against blacks by creating "whites only" schools, theaters, hotels, and other public accommodations.
Civil Rights Cases (1883)
Name attached to five cases brought under the Civil Rights Act of 1875. In 1883, the Supreme Court decided that discrimination in a variety of public accommodations, including theaters, hotels, and railroads, could not be prohibited by the act because such discrimination was private discrimination and not state discrimination.
a tax levied in many southern states and localities that had to be paid before an eligible voter could cast a ballot.
Voting qualification provision in many southern states that allowed only those whose grandfathers had voted before Reconstruction to vote unless they passed a wealth or literacy test.
Plessy v. Ferguson
Supreme Court case that challenged a Louisiana statute requiring that railroads provide separate accommodations for blacks and whites. The Court found that separate but equal accommodations did not violate the equal protection clause of the Fourteenth Amendment.
The drive for voting rights for women that took place in the United States from 1890 to 1920.
Brown v. Board of Education (1954)
U.S. Supreme Court decision holding that school segregation is inherently unconstitutional because it violates the Fourteenth Amendment's guarantee of equal protection
equal protection clause
Section of the Fourteenth Amendment that guarantees that all citizens receive "equal protection of the laws."
Civil Rights Act of 1964
Wide-ranging legislation passed by Congress to outlaw segregation in public facilities and discrimination in employment, education, and voting; created the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission.
Equal Employment Opportunity Commission
Federal agency created to enforce the Civil Rights Act of 1964, which forbids discrimination on the basis of face, creed, national origin, religion, or sex in hiring, promotion, or firing.
Women's Equality Amendment
Proposed amendment to the Constitution that states "Equality of rights under the law shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or any state on account of sex."
Category or class, such as race, that triggers the highest standard of scrutiny from the Supreme Court.
A heightened standard of review used by the Supreme Court to determine the constitutional validity of a challenged practice.
Provision of the Educational Amendments of 1972 that bars educational institutions receiving federal funds from discrimination against female students.