CardioVascular System: Signs, Symptoms, and Disease

27 terms by kchilders19

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aneurysm

Localized dilation of the wall of a blood vessel

angina pectoris

Mild to severe pain or pressure in the chest caused by ischemia

arrhythmia

Irregularity or loss of rhythm of the heartbeat (dysrrhythmia)

fibrillation

Irregular, random contraction of heart fibers

arteriosclerosis

Thickening, hardening, and loss of elasticity of arterial walls (hardening of the arteries)

atherosclerosis

Most common form of arteriosclerosis due to accumulation of fatty substances within the arterial walls--results in partial, and eventually, total occlusion

bruit

Soft blowing sound heard on ausculation caused by turbulent blood flow

coronary heart disease (CHD)

Abnormal condition that affects the heart's arteries and produces various pathological effects, especially reduced flow of oxygen and nutrients to the myocardium

deep vein thrombosis (DVT)

Formation of a blood clot in a deep vein of the body, occuring most commonly in the iliac and femoral veins

embolus

Mass of undissolved matter that travels through the bloodstream and becomes lodged in a blood vessel

heart block

Interference with normal conduction of electrical impulses that control activity of the heart muscle

first-degree

AV block in which the atrial electrical impulses are delayed by a fraction of a second before being conducted to the ventricles

second-degree

AV block in which occasional electrical impulses from the SA node fail to be conducted to the ventricles

third-degree

AV block in which electrical impulses from the atria fail to reach the ventricles (complete heart block; CHB)

heart failure (HF)

Condition in which the heart cannot pump enough blood to meet the metabolic reuirement of body tissues (congestive heart failure)

hypertension

Consistently elevated blood pressure that is higher than 119/79 mm Hg, causing damage to the blood vessels and the heart

ischemia

Inadequate supply of oxygenated blood to a body part due to an interruption of blood flow

mitral valve prolapse

Condition in which the leaflets of the mitral valve prolapse into the left atrium during systole, resulting in incomplete closure and backflow of blood

murmur

abnormal sound heard on auscultation due to defects of valves or chambers

myocardial infarction (MI)

necrosis of portion of cardiac muscle caused by partial or complete occlution of one or more coronary arteries (heart attack)

patent ductus arteriosus

failure of ductus arteriosis to close after birth resulting in an abnormal opeing between pulmonary artery and aorta

Raynaud phenomenon

numbness of fingers or toes due to intermittent constriction of arterioles of the skin

rheumatic heart disease

streptococcal infection that causes damage to the heart valves and heart muscle, mst commonly in children and young adults

stroke

damage to part of the brain due to interruption of its blood supply caused by bleeding within brain tissue or, more commonly, blockage of an artery (cerebrovascular accident CVA)

thrombus

aggregation of platelets, fibrin, clotting factors, and the cellular elements of the blood attached to the interior wall of a vein or artery, sometimes occluding the lumen of the vessel

transient ischemic attack

temporary interferene in the blood supply to the brain that causes no permanent brain damage

varicose veins

swollen superficial veins that are visible through the skin and usually occur in the legs

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