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Chapters 18, 19, 20

1.Hypovolemic shock can be caused by

Profuse sweating or a high loss of fluid and blood volume

2.A substance that reduces the heart rate is said to exert

a negative chronotropic effect.

3.The lowest arterial blood pressure observed during the cardiac cycle is called the ___ pressure.

diastolic

4.The inferior vena cava has one-way valves that ensure the upward flow of blood toward the heart.

False

5.You would expect to find the thickest tunica media in a

large artery.

6.If a person moved from the sea shore to a very high mountain, where the air pressure is reduced, what might happen to the hematocrit readings?

red blood cells increase

7.The absolute refractory period in the myocyte results in

the prevention of wave summation and tetanus.

8.The valve that lies between the left atrium and the left ventricle is the mitral valve.

True

9.The amount of blood (mL) coming from one ventricle in one heartbeat is called

the stroke volume.

10.The myocardium begins to relax at the end of the plateau in the action potential.

True

11.It is essential that both ventricles eject the same amount of blood even though the pressure in the right ventricle is much less than the pressure in the left ventricle.

True

12.In the adult, blood formation occurs in the

red bone marrow and lymphoid tissues

13.The cardiac center, which modifies the heart rate, is located in

the medulla oblongata.

14.Bile pigments are produced by the breakdown of the heme portion of hemoglobin.

True

15.You are following the pathway of blood from the superior vena cava to the aorta. What is the correct order of valves through which the blood will pass?

tricuspid, pulmonary, bicuspid, aortic

16.The most common nutrient in the blood is _____; the most common electrolyte is _____; and the most common nitrogenous waste is _____.

protein; Na+; urea

17.Positive feedback is most important in

decompensated shock.

18.Proteins, like albumin, move across a capillary by

transcytosis.

19.Erythropoietin is produced by the liver to stimulate red blood cell production by the bone marrow.

False

20.The cardiovascular system refers to all of the below except one. The area that is not part of the cardiovascular system is the

blood.

21.The formed elements in the blood that have one nucleus are the _____, while the formed elements that have no nucleus are the _____.

leukocytes; erythrocytes and platelets

22.Sickle-cell disease is caused by a dominant allele that alters the structure of hemoglobin.

False

23.Which of these is not found in blood?

glycogen

24.The rarest of the leukocytes are basophils.

True

25.Atrial systole begins

immediately before the P wave.

26.The innermost lining of the heart wall is

the endocardium.

27.Blood pressure tends to decrease with age due to the loss of arterial elasticity making them less distensible.

False

28.Which of the following is the correct sequence of events occurring in the cardiac cycle?

atrial systole, atrial diastole, ventricular systole, and ventricular diastole

29.Aldosterone lowers blood pressure by stimulating the kidneys to release excess water and sodium into the urine.

False

30.In the cardiovascular system, the _____ circuit carries blood to and from the lungs, which is served by the _____ side of the heart.

pulmonary; right

31.When a clot is no longer needed, it is dissolved by

plasmin.

32.Which of the following is incorrectly matched?

lymphocytes:dark purple cytoplasmic granules

33.Lymphocytes multiply continuously and give rise to all of the cellular elements of blood.

False

34.Antibody A is present in the blood plasma of individuals with which blood types?

types B and O

35.The parasympathetic nervous system has a negative chronotropic effect on the heart.

True

36.The PR interval on an electrocardiogram represents the electrical events related to the:

atrial contraction

37.In skeletal muscle contraction, membrane depolarization lasts for 2 msec; in cardiac muscle, depolarization may last for 250 msec.

True

38.A differential WBC count shows an abnormally high count of eosinophils. This is a sign of:.

allergic reaction

39.Blood flow is directly proportional to

vessel radius.

40.The second heart sound heard is the result of closing of the AV valves

False

41.The most important force in venous flow is

the pressure gradient generated by the heart.

42.Blood has all of the following functions except

hormone production.

43.Rh+ women do not have babies with hemolytic disease of the newborn.

True

44.___ is secreted in response to hypoxia and produces a negative feedback loop that raises the oxygen concentration of the blood.

Erythropoietin

45.The heart rate is increased by

hypocalcemia.

46.An emergency room patient has been in an automobile accident. He is unconscious and his medical history is unknown, but he is found to have blood type B+. He needs blood, and only the following types are available. Which would be the safest to administer?

O-

47.Most blood enters the ventricles even before the atria begin to contract.

True

48.Cardiac output is a product of ___ and ___.

heart rate and stroke volume

49.Of the pathways listed, which correctly describes a route that blood can take in a normal human heart? A) left atrium > bicuspid valve > left ventricle > aortic semilunar valve

left atrium > bicuspid valve > left ventricle > aortic semilunar valve

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