1215 English document began representative government, individual rights, & limited King's power?
This European movement was caused by corruption of the Catholic Church & was started by Martin Luther
These "holy wars" led to an exchange of goods & ideas between east & west; also helped Europe out of isolation & into the Age of Exploration
Astrolabe, Compass, Caravel
These new technologies helped make the Age of Exploration possible for Europeans
a German monk who became one of the most famous critics of the Roman Catholic Chruch. In 1517, he wrote 95 theses, or statements of belief attacking the church practices.
a religious movement in 1519 that began as an attempt to reform the Roman Catholic Church and resulted in the creation of Protestant churches(Baptist, Methodist, etc.)
All Water West route to Asia
Why did Christopher Columbus organize his expedition? What was he looking for?
The exchange of plants, animals, diseases, and technologies between the Americas and the rest of the world following Columbus's voyages.
3 Reasons for English colonization
1)poor English economy, 2)to escape religious persecution, 3)to set up new markets
French and Indian War (7 Years War)
What 1763 conflict between English and French was won by the British and changed the relationship between Britain and the colonists?
Religious revival in colonies in 1740's; first mass movement which broke down sectional boundaires, giving American a growing sense of commonality and experience; split churches in to Old Lights and New Lights
Great Awakening teaching
Everyone had free will to determine their own salvation - freedom of choice in religious life helped strengthen democratic forces in colonial life
Boston Tea Party
demonstration (1773) by citizens of Boston who (disguised as Indians) raided three British ships in Boston harbor and dumped hundreds of chests of tea into the harbor
a pamphlet written by Thomas Paine in 1776 that criticized monarchies and convinced many American colonists of the need to break away from Britain
He wrote the Declaration of Independence; was influenced by Locke, Montesquieu, and Rousseau
English philosopher who advocated the idea of a "social contract" in which government powers are derived from the consent of the governed and in which the government serves the people; also said people have natural rights to life, liberty and property.
the Enlightenment writer who believed in separation of powers; resulted in three branches of government
Second Continental Congress
Met and organized the first national government, created the Continental Army, & appointed Washington commander
Place where Washington's army spent the winter of 1777-1778, a 4th of troops died here from disease and malnutriton, Steuben comes and trains troops
Battle of Saratoga
Turning point of the American Revolution. It was very important because it convinced the French to give the U.S. military support. It lifted American spirits, ended the British threat in New England by taking control of the Hudson River
The last major battle of the war in which Charles Cornwallis surrendered to George Washington. The French helped us. The was over, and colonists had won!
Articles of Confederation
this document, the nations first constitution, was adopted by the second continental congress in 1781during the revolution. the document was limited because states held most of the power, and congress lacked the power to tax, regulate trade, or control coinage
Strict constructionist, 4th president, father of the Constitution, leads nation through War of 1812
a series of 85 essays written by Hamilton, Madison, and Jay (using the name "publius") published in NY newspapers and used to convice readers to adopt the new constitution
the agreement by which Congress would have two houses, the Senate (where each state gets equal representation-two senators) and the House of Representatives (where representation is based on population).
US House of Representatives
In this house of government, the number is based on a state's population and they serve 2 years
War of 1812
War between the U.S. and Great Britain which lasted until 1814, ending with the Treaty of Ghent and a renewed sense of American nationalism
Compromise worked out by Henry Clay in 1820: slavery would be prohibited in the Louisiana territory north of 36o30'; Missouri would enter the Union as a slave state, Maine would enter the Union as a free state.
the power of the Supreme Court to declare laws and actions of local, state, or national governments unconstitutional (see Marbury vs. Madison)
created the precedent of judicial review; ruled on many early decisions that gave the federal government more power, especially the supreme court (1755-1835)
Compromise of 1850
Devised by Clay - California was free state, stricter Fugitive Slave Law, ended Slave Trade in Washington DC, opened Mexican Cession lands to popular sovereignty;temporarily postponed the Civil War
the idea that political authority belongs to the people; especially used deciding slavery ? in western lands in 1850's. "Let the people decide"
Political Parties, Entangling foreign alliances
Washington's Farewell Address warned against these two things.
territory in western United States purchased from France in 1803 for $15 million; doubled the size of the US overnight
President when the Louisiana Purchase was made even though it went against his strict interpretation of the Constitution.
practice of rewarding supporters with government jobs; Andrew Jackson made this famous.
a system of secret routes used by escaping slaves to reach freedom in the North or in Canada
Plessy vs. Ferguson
Supreme Court said in 1896 that "separate but equal" facilities were constitutional; effectively "legalized" segregation.
Self-educated slave who escaped in 1838, he became the best-known abolitionist speaker. He edited an anti-slavery weekly, the North Star.
William Lloyd Garrison
1805-1879. Prominent American abolitionist, journalist and social reformer. Editor of radical abolitionist newspaper "The Liberator", and one of the founders of the American Anti-Slavery Society.
Harriet Beecher Stowe
Author of the antislavery novel Uncle Tom's Cabin; helped expose northern whites to brutality of slavery
Abolitionist who was hanged after leading an unsuccessful raid at Harper's Ferry, Virginia in an attempt to start a slave rebellion; was seen as a martyr by many abolitionists
slave whose case led the Supreme court to declare the Missouri Compromise unconstitutional
Dred Scott decision
Landmark Supreme Court decision in 1857 that ruled that slaves were property and antislavery laws were unconstitutional
Cause of Civil War
1)slavery debate, 2)Dred Scott decision, 3)John Brown's raid, 4)Uncle Tom's Cabin, 5)Election of Lincoln
First shots of Civil War, Confederates fired upon Federal fort, fort surrenders, war begins
Speech given by Lincoln in November, 1863 to honor dead and reaffirm Declaration of Independence Ideals
Battle of Gettysburg
Turning point of the Civil War that made it clear the North would win. 50,000 people died, and the South lost its chance to invade the North.
This amendment freed all slaves without compensation to the slaveowners. It legally forbade slavery in the United States.
Southern laws designed to restrict the rights of the newly freed black slaves after the Civil War; designed to "keep blacks in their place"
Declares that all persons born in the U.S. are citizens and are guaranteed equal protection of the laws; made ex-slaves citizens.
citizens cannot be denied the right to vote because of race, color , or precious condition of servitude; gave ex-slaves the right to vote.
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
A prominent advocate of women's rights, Stanton organized the 1848 Seneca Falls Convention with Lucretia Mott
Susan B. Anthony
social reformer who campaigned for womens rights, the temperance, and was an abolitionist, helped form the National Woman Suffrage Assosiation
Reason for Temperance Act/Movement
Drinking led to social problems - domestic violence, child abuse, etc.
United States industrialist and philanthropist who endowed education and public libraries and research trusts (1835-1919); made fortune in steel business
A wealthy person who built their own fortune using unethical business practices-Rockefeller, Carnegie, Vanderbilt, JP Morgan.
Booker T. Washington
founded Tuskegee Institute to teach blacks trades; Identified with "accomodation" philosophy that blacks should accept segregation & be patient for civil rights
1st black to earn Ph.D. from Harvard, encouraged blacks to resist systems of segregation and discrimination, helped create NAACP in 1910
Journalism that exploits, distorts, or exaggerates the news to create sensations and attract readers; used to get US in the Spanish American War
Open Door Policy
A policy proposed by the US in 1899, under which ALL nations would have equal opportunities to trade in China.
A policy in which a strong nation seeks to dominate other countries poitically, socially, and economically. Turning colonies into empires.
U.S. political party formed in 1892 representing mainly farmers, favoring free coinage of silver and government control of railroads and other monopolies
This expression was popular in the 1840s. Many people believed that the U.S. was destined to secure territory from "sea to sea," from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean. This rationale drove the acquisition of territory.
In 1847, about 1,600 Mormons followed part of the Oregon Trail to Utah. They built a settlement by the Great Salt Lake.
Trail of Tears
Refers to the forced relocation in 1838 of the Cherokee Native American tribe to the Western United States, which resulted in the deaths of an estimated 4,000 Cherokees. Andrew Jackson was president.
major overland emigrant route across the Western United States from Missouri to California in the middle 19th century. It was used by 250,000 farmers and gold-seekers to reach the California gold fields. "49ers" used it for the Gold Rush.
a route from Independence, Missouri, to Oregon City, Oregon, used by pioneers traveling to the Oregon Territory (2000 miles long)
Sante Fe Trail
a route from Independece, Missouri to Sante Fe, New Mexico. Used by traders in the early and mid 1800's.
Fifty-four Forty or Fight
Polk's slogan referring to the desire to fight for all of Oregon in the 1844 election
the part of the Constitution that permits Congress to make any laws "necessary and proper" to carrying out its powers; allows amendments to be added
1789-1795; First Secretary of the Treasury. He advocated creation of a national bank, assumption of state debts by the federal government, and a tariff system to pay off the national debt.
Became famous for warning colonists "the British are coming" before the Battle of Lexington
Laws that governed trade between England and its colonies. Colonists were required to ship certain products exclusively to England. These acts made colonists very angry because they were forbidden from trading with other countries.
Economic program advanced by Henry Clay that included support for a national bank, high tariffs, and internal improvements; emphasized strong role for federal government in the economy.
Journalist who exposed corruption and other problems of the late 1800s and early 1900s; especially during the Progressive Era. Ex. Upton Sinclair, Ida Tarbell.
Army physician who helped eradicate Yellow Fever and Malaria from Panama so work on the Panama Canal could proceed-from Alabama
Rights activist on behalf of mentally ill patients - created first wave of US mental asylums
United States nurse who campaigned for birth control and planned parenthood during the 1920's
Works Progress Administration(WPA)
New Deal program that employed men and women to build hospitals, schools, parks, and airports; employed artists, writers, and musicians as well
1933 New Deal agency that insured bank deposits up to $5000; meant to restore faith in banking industry
Battle of Midway
U.S. naval victory over the Japanese fleet in June 1942, in which the Japanese lost four of their best aircraft carriers. It marked a turning point in World War II as Japan was put on the defensive.
led the Allied invasion of North African and planned and executed the D-Day invasion at Normandy and the Battle of the Bulge
June 6, 1944..the day the Allies invaded Normandy, France during WWII; also known as Operation Overlord
Lend Lease Act
Approve by Congress in March 1941; The act allowed America to sell, lend or lease arms or other supplies to nations considered "vital to the defense of the United States." Made the US the "arsenal of democracy"
A statement of foreign policy which proclaimed that Europe should not interfere in affairs within the United States or in the development of other countries in the Western Hemisphere.
Addition to the Monroe Doctrine asserting America's right to intervene in Latin American affairs
Volunteer regiment of US Cavalry led by Teddy Roosevelt during the Spanish American War
Spark or immediate cause of WW I
Assassination of Archduke Francis Ferdinand of Austria Hungary by Serbian nationalist/terrorist
Reasons for US entry into WW I
Sinking of Lusitania; Zimmerman Note; Unrestricted sub. warfare by Germany
Treaty of Versailles (1919)
Treaty that ended WW I. It blamed Germany for WW I and handed down harsh punishment. Caused Germans to be bitter and set stage for WW II.
Fighting with trenches, mines, and barbed wire. Horrible living conditions, great slaughter, no gains, stalemate, used in WWI.
young women who rebelled against traditional ways of thinking and acting during the 1920's(drank, smoked, used makeup in public)
United States gangster who terrorized Chicago during Prohibition until arrested for tax evasion (1899-1947); made fortune from bootlegging.
a total ban on the manufacture, sale, and transportation of liquor throughout the United States. 1919-1933 (see 18th Amendment)
1925 trial in Tennessee on the issue of teaching evolution in public schools; also known as the Monkey Trial as it pitted creation against evolution
Sacco and Vanzetti
two Italian-born anarchists, unfairly tried and convicted for the armed robbery and murder of two pay-clerks in Massachusetts in 1920
fear that communists were working to destroy the American way of life, especially in 1919 and early 20's
the economic crisis beginning with the stock market crash in 1929 and continuing through the 1930s
Great Depression causes
1)Overproduction, 2)Overspeculation(stock market), 3)gap between rich and poor
buying on margin
buying stock with a little money down(5-10%) with the promise of paying the balance at sometime in the future-leads to stock market crash
term used for the central and southern great plains during the 1930s when the region suffered from drought and dust storms - see "Okies"
migrants from Oklahoma to California during the dust bowl - left farms to look for work in California - see Grapes of Wrath
FDR's economic reform program designed to solve the problems of the Great Depression by increasing government involvement-"alphabet soup agencies" like CCC,WPA,NIRA,AAA,TVA, etc.
Civilian Conservation Corps. New Deal progam that provided work for young men 18-25 years old in national parks planting trees, making trails, etc.
Social Security Act
1935 New Deal law that set up old age pensions as well as care for disabled, etc. FDR said it was the most important part of the New Deal
New Deal agency that provided cheap electricity for the South by building dams - also flood control, fertilizer production and jobs
the organized killing of European Jews and others by the Nazis during WWII - see "Final Solution" - 6 million Jews were executed
Series of trials after WW 2 held in Germany in which former Nazi leaders were charged with crimes against humanity, and war crimes
a flowering of African American culture in the 1920s; instilled interest in African American culture and pride in being an African American. Ex. - Claude McKay, Langston Hughes