Faults and Earthquakes

23 terms by jmaguire448

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Anticline

An upward fold in rock formed by compression of Earth's crust

Syncline

A downward fold in rock formed by compression in earth's crust

Plateau

A large area of flat land elevated high above sea level

Friction

The force that opposes the motion of one surface as it moves across another surface

Fold

A bend in rock that forms where part of Earth's crust is compressed

Fault

A break in Earth's crust where slabs of rock slip past each other

Fault-block mountain

A mountain that forms where a normal fault uplifts a block of rock

Earthquake

The shaking that results from the movement of rock beneath Earth's surface

Deformation

A change in the volume or shape of Earth's crust

Seismograph

A device that records ground movements caused by seismic waves as they move through Earth

Magnitude

The measurement of an earthquake's strength based on seismic waves and movement along faults

Liquefaction

The process by which an earthquake's violent movement suddenly turns loose soil into liquid mud

Aftershock

An earthquake that occurs after a larger earthquake in the same area

Tsunami

A large wave produced by an earthquake on the ocean floor

Mercalli Scale

A scale that rates earthquakes according to their intensity and how much damage they cause. Rated from I to XII. Not precise. Earthquake can have many different ratings, depending upon how far away from the epicenter it is rated.

Richter Scale

A scale that rates seismic waves as measured by a particular type of mechanical seismograph. Works well for small, nearby earthquakes, but not well for all earthquakes.

Moment Magnitude Scale

A scale that rates earthquakes by estimating the total energy released by an earthquake. Works well for all earthquakes.

Tension

Stress that stretches rock so that it becomes thinner in the middle

Compression

Stress that squeezes rock until it folds or breaks

Shearing

Stress the pushes a mass of rock in opposite directions

Normal Fault

A type of fault where the hanging wall slides downwards. Tension occurs. Happens at divergent boundaries.

Reverse Fault

A type of fault where the hanging wall slides upwards. Compression occurs. Happens at convergent boundaries.

Strike-Slip Fault

A type of fault where rocks on either side move past each other sideways with little up-or-down motion. Shearing occurs. Happens at transform boundaries.

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