# Faults and Earthquakes

### 23 terms by jmaguire448

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### Anticline

An upward fold in rock formed by compression of Earth's crust

### Syncline

A downward fold in rock formed by compression in earth's crust

### Plateau

A large area of flat land elevated high above sea level

### Friction

The force that opposes the motion of one surface as it moves across another surface

### Fold

A bend in rock that forms where part of Earth's crust is compressed

### Fault

A break in Earth's crust where slabs of rock slip past each other

### Fault-block mountain

A mountain that forms where a normal fault uplifts a block of rock

### Earthquake

The shaking that results from the movement of rock beneath Earth's surface

### Deformation

A change in the volume or shape of Earth's crust

### Seismograph

A device that records ground movements caused by seismic waves as they move through Earth

### Magnitude

The measurement of an earthquake's strength based on seismic waves and movement along faults

### Liquefaction

The process by which an earthquake's violent movement suddenly turns loose soil into liquid mud

### Aftershock

An earthquake that occurs after a larger earthquake in the same area

### Tsunami

A large wave produced by an earthquake on the ocean floor

### Mercalli Scale

A scale that rates earthquakes according to their intensity and how much damage they cause. Rated from I to XII. Not precise. Earthquake can have many different ratings, depending upon how far away from the epicenter it is rated.

### Richter Scale

A scale that rates seismic waves as measured by a particular type of mechanical seismograph. Works well for small, nearby earthquakes, but not well for all earthquakes.

### Moment Magnitude Scale

A scale that rates earthquakes by estimating the total energy released by an earthquake. Works well for all earthquakes.

### Tension

Stress that stretches rock so that it becomes thinner in the middle

### Compression

Stress that squeezes rock until it folds or breaks

### Shearing

Stress the pushes a mass of rock in opposite directions

### Normal Fault

A type of fault where the hanging wall slides downwards. Tension occurs. Happens at divergent boundaries.

### Reverse Fault

A type of fault where the hanging wall slides upwards. Compression occurs. Happens at convergent boundaries.

### Strike-Slip Fault

A type of fault where rocks on either side move past each other sideways with little up-or-down motion. Shearing occurs. Happens at transform boundaries.

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