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Carbon

is an example of an element

Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen

four most common elements in living systems

Iodine

essential to life, is a trace element

More Protons than Electrons

atom with a positive charge has

Protons

atoms of an element have the same number

nucleus

atom's protons are found here

Atomic Mass - Atomic Number

how you figure the amount of neutrons in an atom

Isotopes

have the same number of protons, and different numbers of neutrons

How do radioactive isotopes differ from isotopes

Radioactive isotopes are unstable; isotopes are stable

The way Earth moves about the sun is most like

an electron moving around the nucleus of an atom

drawings of an atom should have what?

The Electrons far away from the nucleus

2

The maximum number of electrons the first electron shell of an atom can hold

8

The maximum number of electrons the second electron shell of an atom can hold

ion

An atom with an electrical charge

ionic bond

The bond between oppositely charged ions

space-filling model

Which of the representations of molecules does NOT reveal double bonds?

Ionic bond

In the following reaction, what type of bond is holding the two atoms together?
K + Cl → K+ + Cl— → KCl

Covalent Bond

What name is given to bonds that involve the sharing of electrons?

2

Sulfur has an atomic number of 16. How many covalent bonds can sulfur form

Covalent

The hydrogens and oxygen of a water molecule are held together by what kind of bonds?

Its electrons spend more time with its oxygen than with either hydrogen

Why is water considered a polar molecule

Hydrogen

Adjacent water molecules are joined by ______ bonds

electrical attraction between the hydrogen of one water molecule and the oxygen of another water molecule

Adjacent water molecules are connected by the

24

How many oxygen atoms are in the products of the following reaction?
C6H12O6 + 6 H2O + 6 O2 → 6 CO2 + 12 H2O

evolution

The branch of biology that explains both the diversity and the unity of life

The surface tension that is a result of water's cohesive properties makes this possible

Why (if you are careful) are you able to float a needle on the surface of water

evaporative cooling

Sweating cools your body by

evolution

The aspect of biology that unites all of the diverse fields of biology as a single science is

natural selection

developed by chales darwin

inherritance, unequal reproductive success, individual variation, overreproduction

required for natural selection to occur

natural selection

Unequal reproductive success

adaptation

the accumulation of favorable variations in a population over time

anabolic steroids

cause muscle growth, irritability, and depression

artificial selection

accounts for the different breeds of domesticated dogs

You will promote the evolution of bacteria resistant to that antibiotic

What will happen if you do NOT (properly) finish your antibiotic prescription

Science

the explanation of structures and processes based on verifiable observations and measurements

Discovery science leads from the specific to the general, whereas hypothesis-driven science leads from the general to the specific

the difference between discovery science and hypothesis-driven science

Scientific ideas

subjected to rigorous and repeated testing

discovery science

primarily based on observation

Inductive reasoning involves going from the specific to the general, whereas deductive reasoning involves going from the general to the specific

How does inductive reasoning differ from deductive reasoning

hypothesis

tenative explanation

deductive testing

If my car does not start and I recharge the battery, then my car will start

the control group

serves as a basis of comparison with the experimental group

Theories are more comprehensive than hypotheses

How do hypotheses differ from theories

brightly colored male lizards

are preferred by female collared lizards

observation, question, hypothesis, prediction, experiment, results, conclusion

components of the scientific method

high amounts of tryptophan in turkey

that one might feel after a large Thanksgiving dinner of turkey is likely due to

4

A single carbon atom can form a maximum of ______ covalent bond

hydrocarbon

The following molecule is best described as a ______.
CH3—CH2—CH2—CH2

-OH

hydroxyl group

amino groups

Include Nitrogen

monomer

In the following reaction, galactose is a ______.
galactose + glucose → lactose + water

dehydration reaction

What name is given to the following reaction?
galactose + glucose → lactose + water

hydrolysis

What name is given to the following reaction?
sucrose + water → glucose + fructose

Carbohydrates

C, H, and O in a 1:2:1 ratio

isomers

glucose and fructose

Disaccharide

monosaccharide + monosaccharide → ______ + water

lactase

Which component of the following reaction is the enzyme?
lactose + lactase + water → lactase + glucose + fructose

disaccharide

In the following equation, lactose is a ______.
galactose + glucose → lactose + water

TCATGAC

If one strand of a DNA double helix has the sequence AGTACTG, what will be the sequence of the other strand?

Sucrose

Table sugar

tooth decay

consumption of sugar is a major cause of

Starch

example of a polysaccharide

glycogen

Animals storage of carbohydrates

cellulose

is a fiber and is hydrophillic

hydrophobic substance

thin film floating on top of a liquid

fat

A glycerol with three fatty acids

dehydration reaction

What name is given to the following reaction?
glycerol + fatty acid → monoglyceride + water

hydrogen

Saturated fats are saturated with ______.

unsaturated

type of fatty acid has double bonds

beef

LOWEST in unsaturated fats

hydrogenated fats

are more solid

lowerd life span

Which of the following is a health effect of a diet high in saturated fats

estrogen

a steriod

Carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids

Macro Molecules

Amino acids

Monomer of proteins

Nucleotides

monomer of nucleic acids

monosaccharides

monomer of carbohydrates

fatty acids

monomer of lipids

Polymerization

a dehydration reaction, production of polymers from monomers

Depolymerization

needs addition of water. It is a process where we produce shorter polymers from longer polymers

RNA

Ribonucleic Acid, single stranded, AUGC, Nitrogen Base, Ribosugar

DNA

Deoxyribonucleic acid, double stranded, ATGC, Nitrogen Base, Deoxy sugar

Properties of water

Cohesion, moderation of temperature, insulation by floating ice, solvent of life

Eukaryotic Cell

10x larger, Advanced nucleus, membrane bound organelles, typically multicellular

Prokaryotic Cell

10x smaller, no nucleus, no membrane bound organelles, unicellular

Protists

Unicellular, eukaryotic cell organisms, with membrane bound organelles, and advanced nucleus

archea

Prokaryotic celled organisms which like to stay in groups, and can tolerate extreme environmental conditions

Properties of Life

regulation, reproduction, response to th environment, evolutionary adaptation, order, growth and development, energy processing

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