have a definite volume but take the shape of the container
in constant random motion; close together due to strong attractive forces
attractive forces of liquid particles
dipole-dipole, london dispersion, hydrogen bonding
a substance that flows and takes the shape of its container
properties of liquids
high density, incompressible, ability to diffuse, surface tension, capillary action, vaporization and evaporation, ability to freeze
high densities of liquids?
molecules are very close together
not much space to allow a liquid to allow a liquid to be compressed (molecules close together)
liquids can diffuse?
molecules move randomly. slower than in gases; particles much closer together
liquids surface tension?
decreases surface area to the smallest possible size because of favorable liquid
a favorable interaction between a liquid and the surface of a solid (plants move water from roots to other parts of the plant)
liquids evaporate and boil?
undergo vaporization and evaporation
phase change from liquid to gas
phase change from liquid to gas occurs under nonboiling conditions (i.e, rain puddles drying up, clothes drying when hung up)
why does evaporation occur?
some molecules posses high enough KE to enter the gas phase
liquids can freeze?
phase change from liquid to highly ordered and dense solid state -- particles do not posses enough KE to move around a lot
solids have strong...
IMFs: dipole-dipole, london dispersion, hydrogen bonding
particles in highly ordered patterns
particles randomly arranged
solids have definite volume because...
particles are close together
solids have definite shape because...
strong IMFs do not allow particles to flow
defined temp at which solids change into liquids; unique to each pure substance and related to strength of IMFs
amorphus solids-definite melting point?
none, melting range of temperatures instead
solids are incompressible because...
all space is occupied by closely packed particles
solids have a slow rate of _____
types of crystalline solids
ionic, covalent network, metallic, and covalent molecular
consist of cations and anions arranges in a regular pattern
covalent network crystals
consist of covalently bonded atoms; the whole crystal is one "molecule." (diamond, C)
consist of metal nuclei surrounded by a sea of electrons - each metal atom's valence electrons contribute to/are shared with the "electron sea"
covalent molecular crystals
consist of regularly arranged crystals of molecules held together by intermolecular forces; ice crystals are an example of them - soft, easily vaporized, low melting points
glasses and plastics are...
properties of gas
weakest IMF, expand to fill containers, fluids, low density, are compressible, high rates of diffusion and effusion
high pressure and low temperature make gases...
deviate from ideal behavior
polar gases have greater forces of _______ that _____
attraction; deviate from ideality
types of phase equilibria
solid-liquid, solid-vapor, vapor-liquid
equilibrium vapor pressure
pressure that a vapor exerts when a liquid and its vapor are in equilibrium at a constant temperature
why does temperature remain constant in freezing and melting?
energy is related to phase change
sublimation and deposition
a phase change that occurs between solids and gases
the phase change from a solid directly to gas
the phase change from a gas/vapor to solid
the temperature and pressure at which all three phases of solid, liquid, and gas coexist in equilibrium
intersection of critical temp and crit. pressure
the substance cannot exist as a gas above this temperature regardless of pressure
the lowest pressure at which the substance can exist as a liquid