Considered the second great control system of the body, "slow" acting.
The endocrine system uses chemical messengers called _________, which are released in the blood and transferred throughout the body.
Chemical substancesthat are secreted by endocrine cells into the extracellular fluids and regulate metabolic activity of other cells in the body.
Proteins, peptides, and amines are _____-_____ based hormones.
______ hormones, (made from cholesterol) include sex hormones, and the hormones produced by the adrenal cortex.
__________ are made from highly active lipids, released from nearly all cell membranes.
A given hormone affects only certain tissue cells or organs, referred to as its ______-______ or target-organs.
For target cells to respond to a hormone, specific protein ______ must be present on its plasma membrane (or in the interior).
Beign lipid soluable molecules, steroid hormones can ______ through plasma membranes.
Once inside the cell, the steroid hormone enters the _______.
What hormone causes calcium to be released into the blood?
What hormone causes a decrease in blood calcium?
This hormones major effects are directed to the growth of skeletal muscles, and long bones of the body. It plays an important role in final body size.
The __________ hormones regulate the hormonal activity of the gonads (ovaries/testes).
________-_________ hormone stimulates follicle development in the ovaries.
_________ hormone triggers ovulation of an egg from the ovary, and causes the ruptured follicle to produce progesterone and some estrogen.
_________ hormone triggers testosterone production by the interstitial cells of the testes in men.
Causes the growth of facial hair, development of heavy bones and muscles, and lowering of the voice.
What endocrine glands produce insulin?
What specific cells in the pancreatic islets release insulin?
What hormone does insulin work against?
What anterior pituitary hormone affects bones and muscles?
What anterior pituitary hormone affects the mammary glands?
What anterior pituitary hormone affects the thyroid?
What anterior pituitary hormone affects the adrenal cortex?
How many anterior pituitary hormones are there?
This symptom of diabetes means excessive urination.
This symptom of diabetes means excessive thirst.
This symptom of diabetes means hunger.
What hormone affects the wake/sleep cycles?
Neutrophil Lymphocyte Monocyte Eosinophil Basophil
What are the formed elements in the blood, from greatest to least?
An excessive or abnormal increase in the number of erythrocytes is called _______.
What blood group is the universal recepient?
What blood group is the universal donor?
What type of blood can a person with an O-type receive?
3 to 6 minutes
Blood clotting normally takes __________.
The rate of erythrocyte production is controlled by a hormone called ___________.
What WBC fights parasitic worms?
This substance stimulates the body to release antibodies.
Granule-containing WBCs. Granules in their cytoplasm stain specifically with wrights stain.
neutrophils eosinopjils basophils
Which WBCs are granulocytes?
Which WBCs are agranulocytes?
Which WBCs lack visible cytoplasmic granules?
What type of anemia is due to a lack of vitamin B12?
What bleeding disorder is the inability to clot?
What is the pH range of blood?
What feedback mechanism regulates hormones?
What is a freely floating clot called?
A clot that develops and persists in an unbroken blood vessel is called a ________.
All the formed elements arise from a common type of stem cell called a ___________.
Hormone secretion is triggered by some internal or external __________.
hormonal humoral neural
The stimuli that activate the enocrine organs fall into what 3 major categories?
When enocrine glands are prodded into action by other hormones its known as __________ stimuli.
Changing blood levels of certain ions and nutrients may also stimulate hormone release. What is this called?
The ancient word _________ indicates the various body fluids, such as blood, bile and others.
When nerve fibers stimulate hormone release, this is known as ______ stimuli.
Steroid hormone action is known as ________ gene activation.
Non-steroid hormone action is known as a _______ _______ system.
The master endocrine gland is the ________ gland.
The pituitary gland is snugly surrounded by the ________ bone.
The pituitary has ___ functional lobes.
Hyposecretion of GH during childhood leads to _______.
Hypersecretion of GH during childhood results in ________.
If hypersecretion occurs after long bone growth has ended, it results in ________. The facial bones, particularly the jaw, and the feet and hands enlarge tremendously.
An enlargement of the thyroid gland
Hyposecretion of thyroxine can result in ________, which results in dwarfism - adult body proportions remain childlike.
A disease when the thyroid enlarges, and the eyes may bulge or protrude is called _______ _______.
There is a total of ___ parathyroid glands.
Two bean shaped ______ glands curve over the top of the kidneys.
The adrenal cortex produces 3 major groups of hormones, which are called __________.
The ______ are inportant in regulating the mineral content of the blood. They target the kidney tubules.
________ produce normal cell metabolism and help the body to resist long term stressors.
The first layer of the adrenal cortex is called the ____ _________.
The middle layer of the adrenal cortex is called the ______ __________.
The third level of the adrenal cortex is called the ______ _________.
Glucagon is released by the ____ cells.
The posterior lobe of the pituitary releases ___ hormones.
______ stimulates contraction of the uterus, and the milk let-down reflex.
_______ hormone promotes retention of water by the kidneys.
These 2 hormones stimulate metabolism.
This hormone programs T-lymphocytes.
This hormone supports sperm formation, development and maintenance of 2ndary sex characteristics.
The ________ forms temporarily in the uterus of pregnant women.
The formed elements are suspended in a nonliving fluid matrix called ________.
The buffy coat contains _______, or the WBC.
Blood accounts for ___% of body weight.
This acts as a carrier, shuttling certain molecules through the circulation, is an important blood buffer, and contributes to blood pressure.
RBC are _________, they lack a nucleus.
RBCs are litterally bags of _________, an iron bearing protein.
A single RBC contains about ____ million hemoglobin molecules.
A decrease in the oxygen-carrying ability of blood, whatever the reason.
_____ _____ anemia, the abnormal hemoglobin that was formed becomes spiky and sharp.
WBC are the only ______ cells in the blood, they contain nuclei and the usual organelles.
A WBC that is high, called ________, usually means that a bacterial or viral infection is stewing.
________, is an abnormally low WBC count. Commonly caused by certain drugs.
Avid phagocytes at sites of infection.
Kill parasitic worms.
Histamine containing granuoules, initiate inflammation.
Play an important role in the immune response.
Change into macrophages, which fight cronic infections such as TB.
Blood cell formation is called ________.
vascular spasms occur
The first step in blood clotting is that _________.
platelet plug forms
The second step in blood clotting is that a ________.
The third step in blood clotting is that certain __________ occur.
If a person with Rh___ blood receives mismatched blood, their system will become sesitized and will begin to produce antibodies.