Functions: Helps position food in mouth; roll food into bolus; mixes food with saliva, has taste buds
Leads from pharynx to stomach. covered with mucus along inner surface. composed of circular and longitudinal muscles. Pushes food down through peristalsis.
Stomach (first part)
pH of 2-3. Inner wall folded into ridges called RUGAE (to increase surface area). Has about 40 mil cells lining interior. secrets 2-3 L of gastric juice/day.
Breaks down proteins proteins into long chain polypeptide. Activated form of pepsinogen (activated by HCl, inactivated by HCO3- ions).
Hormone that increases gastric secretions when partially digested proteins appear in the stomach or when the stomach distends.
Food passes from stomach into this. Site of absorption as well as a majority of digestion. About 5.5 to 6 meters long and attached to rear of abdomen by membrane called mesentary.
Makes up first 25-30 cm of small intestine. Hint: comes before jejunum; and ileum. This part of intestine operates at pH of about 9.0.
released when acidic materials enter the small intestine. Stimulates pancreas to release HCO3- ions (bicarbonate ions). Heavily stimulated to be released by high acidity in chyme.
Gastric Inhibitory Peptide; GIP; Enterogastrone
Inhibits gastric secretions; slows motility in the stomach. Most strongly stimulated to be released with a high fat content in chyme; enables fatty meals to remain in stomach longer than non-fatty meals
Converts peptones (short chain peptides) into amino acids. Produced in the duodenum and pancreas.
Activates trypsin from pancreas. Converts trypsinogen into trypsin. Produced in the duodenum.
Form the small intestine (when fats are present). Stimulates increased pancreatic secretions of digestive enzymes and gall bladder contractions.
Produce bile to emulsify fats Stores glycogen; detoxify blood; deaminates proteins; stores vitamins A, D, B12; manufactures proteins for blood clotting and vitamins.