a series of steps followed to solve problems including collecting data, formulating a hypothesis, testing the hypothesis, and stating conclusions.
Medieval view that the earth was an unmoving object located at the center of the universe, and that the moon, sun, and planets all moved in perfectly circular paths around the earth, while beyond the planets lay a sphere of fixed stars, with heaven still farther beyond; idea came from Greek philosopher Aristotle; Greek Astronomer Ptolemy expanded the theory.
sun-centered theory brought about by Nicolaus Copernicus. He became interested in an old Greek idea that the sun stood at the center of the universe. After studying planetary movements, he reasoned that indeed, the stars, the earth, and the other planets revolved around the sun.
Polish astronomer who developed the HELIOCENTRIC THEORY, challenging the Ptolemaic and Aristotelian worldview. Theories condemned by Catholic church. Influenced scientific study of astronomy by Kepler, Galileo etc.
An Italian scientist who assembled an astronomical telescope and saw the moons of Jupiter orbit Jupiter supporting Copernicus's ideas; Galileo was tried by the Inquisition and found guilty therefore put under house arrest.
English mathematician and scientist who invented differential calculus and formulated the theory of universal gravitation, a theory about the nature of light, and three laws of motion. His treatise on gravitation, presented in Principia Mathematica (1687), was supposedly inspired by the sight of a falling apple.
A French philosopher and scientist who revolutionized algebra and geometry and made the famous philosophical statement "I think, therefore I am." Descartes developed a deductive approach to philosophy using math and logic that still remains a standard for problem solving.
English philosopher who advocated the idea of a "social contract" in which government powers are derived from the consent of the governed and in which the government serves the people; also said people have natural rights to life, liberty and property.
Baron de Montesquieu
A French Enlightenment thinker who influenced American ideas of how a government should be constructed in his 1748 book "The Spirit of the Laws," he stressed the importance of the rule of law. He said that the powers of government should be divided up. He suggested that three separate branches be created: legislative, executive and judicial.
Jean Jacques Rouseau
agrueged that people had become enslaved by government and believed in social contract
A philosopher who used satire and targeted the clergy, aristocracy, and the government in his criticisms. He supported tolerance, reason, freedom of religion and freedom of speech and expression. He said "I do not agree with a word you say, but I will defend to the death your right to say it!"
a form of despotism in which rulers were influenced by the Enlightenment. allow the right to hold private property, religious toleration, freedom of speech and press.
(1740-1780) mother of Joseph II; determined to introduce reforms that would make the state stronger and more efficient, 3 aspects-(1)limiting papal power (2)administrative reforms (3) improvement of agricultural population
(r. 1780-1790) coregent with his mother (Maria Theresa) from 1765 until her death-controlled Catholic church closely; granted religious toleration and civic rights to Protestants and Jews; abolished serfdom; peasant labor to be converted into cash paymentscountry in turmoil at death.
Catherine the Great
ruled Russia from 1762 to 1796, added new lands to Russia, encouraged science, art, lierature, Russia became one of Europe's most powerful nations.