Babylonian Captivity of the Church
the Avignon papacy in which the papacy was in a sort of exile from the see of Peter, Rome for 68 years
Erasmus of Rotterdam
humanist scholar who sought to reform society, apply the Gospel to the political system, and prod the Church into self-renewal
English heretic papal authority, and dismissed the validity of the hierarchy, the sacraments, and priesthood; championed the people's right to read the Bible in their own language
Catherine of Siena
Doctor of the Church; prolific letter writer; her goal was to get Gregory XI to return to Rome
a cultural and intellectual movement of the Renaissance that emphasized the rediscovery of art, literature, and the civilizations of ancient Greece and Rome
bubonic plague, which devastated Europe during the Renaissance
Great Western Schism
After the return of the papacy to Rome from Avignon, Italian mobs allegedly pressured the cardinals into electing an Italian as Pope. French cardinals elected a new Pope and returned with him to Avignon. Both Popes - and their successors - claimed to be the true Pope.
Bohemian who taught Wyclif's teachings; stressed the authority of the Bible and the importance of preaching
Joan of Arc
heard voices from God calling her to save France. She led the French against the English in the Battle Orleans and was victorious. She was later captured by England and martyred.
the remission before God of the temporal punishment due to forgiven sins
Council of Constance
called by King Sigismund , then formally convoked by Pope Gregory XII (from Rome), who then abdicated. Its work deposed the two remaining Popes and elected Pope Martin V, ending the Western Schism
The last of the Avignon Popes who was urged by St. Brigid and Catherine of Siena to return to Rome
Bridget of Sweden
called for Pope Gregory XI to leave Avignon and return to Rome; did not live to see her dream realized
idea popular in the Middle Ages that a general council of the Church had more authority than the Pope and could depose him if need be
a philosophy that held that the faithful as a whole - and their bishops gathered in council - had final governing authority in the Church
the basic credo of Lutheranism
Cardinal Jimenez de Cisneros
Archbishop of Toledo in Spain; founded Alcala University a center for Theological Studies
Council of Trent
1545-1563; this important council strove to eliminate problems in the Church and to determine once and for all the doctrinal and disciplinary issues with which Protestant reformers disagreed.
Index of Forbidden Books
List of books that were forbidden from Catholics in order to protect them from heretical ideas
Institutes of the Christian Religion
The seminal exposition on Protestant theology, written by John Calvin
Dominican monk, whose selling of indulgences in Germany disgusted Martin Luther
A list posted by Martin Luther on the church door at Wittenberg, condemning the selling of indulgences and calling for a debate among theologians over reforming the Church; marked the beginning of the Protestant Reformation
Peace of Augsburg
A concord that established the principle of cuius regio, eius religio". Latin for "Whose region, his religion." This means that whatever the religion of the monarch would be the religion of the people.
1524-1525: a series of economic as well as religious revolts, fueled by the Anabaptist movement.
A sixteenth century movement to reform the Church that escalated into a separation from the Church altogether.
An Italian Dominican priest and Florentine a leader in the mid-1400's. He attempted moral reforms but was too harsh, which led his supporters to turn on him and burn him at the stake in 1498.
A classic work on the spiritual life written by Ignatius of Loyola.
The most infamous Pope of the Renaissance; a Borgia, he used nepotism and simony to enrich himself and his family.
Radical reforming sects, for example, Baptists, Mennonites, Quakers, and Amish, that taught that infant Baptism was invalid and that only adults could be baptized.
French reformer who denied sacraments, condemned the papacy, monasticism, and the celibacy and taught predestination; author of the Institutes of the Christian Religion
Brought Presbyterianism, an offshoot of Calvinism, to Scotland; stressed the priesthood of all believers, thus requiring no separate clergy.
King Henry VIII of England
had been given the title "Defender of the Faith" for his defense of the Catholic Church, in particular in response to Martin Luther. Declared himself the head of the Church in England and not bound to the dictates of Rome.
German, Augustinian monk; major reformer who condemned the selling of indulgences, called for reform, and eventually broke with the Church over the questions of justification, the primacy of the Scripture over Tradition, and the primacy of the priesthood over the laity; famous for writing the "95 Theses"
Luther's disciple; He drafted the basic creed of Lutheranism, Augsburg Confession.
Queen Elizabeth I of England
Established the Anglican religion in England by synthesizing Calvinist, Lutheran, and Catholic elements.
Swiss priest who set up a reform Protestantism in Switzerland; encouraged a democratic rule for the church; taught that the Eucharist is only a sign of Christ's presence.
A zealous reforming bishop of Milan.
Ignatius of Loyola
Believed "being a soldier for Christ: really meant doing all for "God's greater honor and glory"; composed the Spiritual Exercises; founded the Society of Jesus (Jesuits)
Founded a society of secular priests called the Congregation of Oratory.
Jesuit, Doctor of the Church, who wrote treatises that refuted the protests of heretics; showed how authority comes from God; created a catechism for teachers.
Theresa of Avila
Doctor of the Church, spiritual writer; taught that prayer is simply talking to God; author of Interior Castle; she reformed the Carmelite order.
Lawyer, chancellor of England under Henry VIII, stood firm in his conscience and would not agree to Henry's divorce and revolt against Rome; he died a martyr.
cuius regio, eius religio
Latin for "whose region, his religion". This means that the religion of the monarch would be the religion of the people. The term was used in the Peace of Augsburg.
comes from a Latin word meaning "to ask" or "to seek"; was an ecclesiastical tribunal established for detecting and suppressing heresy; major tool used by the King and Queen of Spain to unify Catholicism in Spain
The cultural rebirth begun in the late Middle Ages; stressed the natural and human, the pleasures of life, the human body, and celebrated education.
A civil government under Church control.
1475-1564; poet and sculptor, commissioned to paint the Sistine Chapel; some other famous works are La Pieta and the Statue of David
Leonardo da Vinci
1452-1519; known as the "Renaissance Man"; was an artist, scientist, inventor, all around scholar; some of his famous works are the Annunciation, The Last Supper, and journal sketches of the Vitruvian Man