Led the Greek people in revolt in 1821. He was a Greek patriot and general in the Russian army. (Great Powers at the time refused to support the revolution)
In 1827, Great Britain, France, and Russia responded to the demands of their own people. And directed Turkey to accept and armistace (end to conflict). When the Turks refused, these 3 powers trapped the Turkish fleet and destroyed it at navarino. The Russians then decided to go to war with the Turks. This made Russia a protectorate of what is now known as Romania. In 1830 the 3 powers declared Greece independent and installed a German prince as King of the new country and the small country gained its independence.
After 1815, panicked by the French revolution this political party, which was completely controlled by the landed aristocracy did everything possible to defend its ruling positing by repressing every type of popular protest.
This law to regulate the trade of foreign grain had existed for a long time but was not needed during the wars with France b/c Britain was unable to import any cheap grain from eastern Europe. Now that the warring was over grain could be imported again and wheat and bread prices would go down. This would benefit everyone except the aristocracy so in 1815 the Tory Party rammed changes in the corn laws through parliament which prohibited the importation of foreign grain until the prices at home rose to improbable levels. (this pissed people off and resulted in protest and demonstrations of the people and they were supported by radical intellectuals)
Battle of Peterloo:
A huge protest at St. Peters fields in Manchester that was savagely broken up by armed cavalry. This protest prompted the passing of the Six Acts. The Tory controlled gov't responded by temporarily suspending the rights of peaceable assembly and then 2 years later they passed the Six Acts which included heavy taxes on press and eliminated all mass meetings.
Led by great aristocrats who had a history of being more favorable to commercial and manufacturing interests. Introduced a bill in 1930 to amend the representation of the people of Wales and England with the help of popular protest and a deal with the king the act was passed in 1832 and expanded the voting percentage to 12% of adult males.
Reform Bill of 1832:
Increased voting percentage (as on Whig Party Card). Changed the Electoral districts. And among the new voters were comfortable middle class groups and substantial farmers who leased their land. This bill was significant because it proved political reform within the system was possible without revolution or civil war.
"Peoples Charter" of 1838:
This and the Chartist movement were the main programs for radical change. They worked to get parliament to give all men the right to vote even though it was denied 3 separate times the people learned valuable lessons about mass politics.
The Tory prime minister. He and a few other Tory members joined the Whig party to repeal the corn laws in 1846. This came about because of the people desiring lower food costs and the famines suffered in Ireland in 1845 due to crop failure as a result England escaped the famine. And the liberal doctrine of free trade became sacred in GB.
Ten Hour Act of 1847:
Passed by the Tory's to help the working classes. It limited the factory working hours for women and young children to 10 hours. This was the start of the Tory Party supporting legislation to regulate factory conditions in an effort to compete with the middle class for support of the working class.
A blighte attacked all of the young potatoes and the result was widespread starvation and mass fever epidemics. The British gov't did not act soon enough and when they did act their efforts were inadequate. In addition, the gov't continued to collect taxes, landlords continued to demand rent and people who could not pay were evicted. All this intensified the anti-British feeling and increased Irish Nationalism. 1.5 million died or went unborn. Ireland became a land of continuous out migration, late marriage and widespread celibacy.
Louis XVIII's constitutional charter of 1814:
Was a liberal constitution that protected the economic and social gains achieved by the middle class and the peasantry during the French revolution. It also granted intellectual and artistic freedom to the people and created a parliament with and upper and lower house. However, it was not democratic, only 100,000 of the wealthiest men out of a population of 30 million had the right to vote. The king and his ministers made the laws of the nation. Charles X got rid of the constitutional charter in an attempted coupe in July 1830.
Conquest of Algeria:
The French had a long standing economic and diplomatic dispute with the Muslim Algeria, so in June 1830 a French force of 3700 crossed the mediteranian and in 3 short weeks captured the capitol city. They thought they had won but there were revolts and the war continued until 1847 when the French finally won marking the rebirth of French colonial expansion.
Louis Philippe: (r. 1830
1848) - Charles successor and cousin. He accepted the throne and the constitutional charter of 1814. He proclaimed himself merely the King of the French people. However, the situation in France remained unchanged.
A wealthy banker. Louis Philippe's new chief minister. He bluntly told a deputy who complained about the increase of voting rights from 100,000 to 170,000 citizens that the trouble with this country is that too many people believe there has actually been a revolution in France.
The Revolutions of 1848:
Only Great Britain and Russia escaped from revolution.
France's Second Republic:
While the provisional gov't was in place they began working on a constitution. The right to vote was given to every male, all slaves in the French colonies were freed, the death penalty was abolished, and 10 hour work day was established in Paris. Moderate Liberal Republicans of Middle class wanted no radical changes. Radical republicans and hard-pressed artisans, socialists.
Represented the Republican socialists. He promoted that permanent gov't sponsored cooperative workshops should be provided as and alternative to capitalist employment for workers. The moderate republicans were against it, but were willing to agree to temporary relief for workers.
Workshops for temporary relief of workers from capitalist employment. They became a form of public works. But poor people from other countries and French provinces flooded into Paris for these jobs. They continued to fill and grow more radical, so the landowners in the Assembly had the Paris workshops dissolve on June 22 and gave workers the choice of joining the army or going to workshops in the provinces . This created violent uprising.
The first people elected by the masses in April 1848, it included approximately 500 moderate republicans, 200 monarchists and about 100 radicals promoting some type of socialism.
Alexis de Tocqueville: (1805-1859)
He was one of the moderate republicans elected to the constituent assembly. He was the author of Democracy in America and he had predicted the overthrow of Louis Philippe's gov't. He said that the most characteristic aspect of the revolution was socialism. He and other moderate republicans were strongly opposed to the socialists.
A famous astronomer who counciled patience, but was ignored by the people.
General Louis Cavaignac:
After 3 terrible days of death and injury for lots of people he stood triumphant for the Republican army (gov't). This ended the revolution; however, the constituent assembly had completed a constitution with a strong executive.
Nephew of Bonaparte. Elected in Dec. 1848
Emperor Ferdinand I: (r. 1835-1848)
Habsburg emperor. He gave in and promised reforms and a liberal constitutions. Abolished serfdom. Artisan workers and urban poor rose up in arms demanding social workshops and male voting rights, this angered the middle classes, the revolutionary leaders pushed an extremely liberal almost democratic constitution through. But they wanted more, they wanted to unite all the peoples of Hungary, however the croats, serbs and romanians made up half the population and didn't want to be united. In the midst of these conflicts the conservative aristocratic forces supported the emperor to regain power.
Married to the emperors brother. Ashamed of the emperors collapse to the people, she insisted that the emperor abdicate his throne to her son Francis Joseph. Powerful nobles with high offices in gov't, the army , and the church agreed with her and began a secret conspiracy to crush the revolution which they eventually succeeded in doing.
Francis Joseph: (r. 1848-1916).
He was crowned after his 18th birthday in December 1848 as emperor of Austria and still needed to bring Hungary under control (this was done with the help of Nicolas I of Russia who lent 130,000 Russian troops to subdue the country).
Fredrick William IV: (r. 1840-1861).
Ruled Prussia. The middle class liberals wanted to change the monarchy to a liberal constitutional monarchy. He finally caved in on March 21 agreeing to grant a liberal constitution and to merge Prussia into a new national German state that was to be created.
Prussian Constituent Assembly:
They met in Berlin to write a constitution for the Prussian state. -It was a self appointed committee of liberals from various German states. They called for a National assembly to write a Federal constitution for a unified German state.
National Assembly in Frankfurt:
It was a middle class body of lawyers, professors, doctors, officials and business men. They convened to write a constitution but were soon dealing with a battle with Denmark over 2 provinces, Schleswig and Holstein. They were both inhabited by mostly Germans but ruled by the king of Denmark. Completed its constitution in March 1849
King of Denmark. Tried to integrate Schleswing and Holstein into Denmark, and they revolted so the National Assembly after much debate asked the Prussian army to oppose Denmark and they did.
Both provinces were inhabited by mostly Germans but ruled by the King of Denmark, so the two countries were fighting over them.
Was re-established after King Fredrick William of Prussia was elected emperor of new German national state (minus Austria and Shleswig- Holstein). He wanted small monarchs of Germany to elect him instead of being appointed by the people, Austria refused and with the help of Russia forced Prussia to denounce all attempts at unification.