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cuticle

protective, waxy coating on the outer surface of the epidermis of most stems, leaves, and fruits; important adaptation in reducing water loss.

leaf

broad, flat plant organ supported bu the stem that grows upward toward sunlight and traps light energy for photosynthesis.

nonvascular

plants that do not have vascular tissue but rely on relatively slow processes of osmosis and diffusion to transport water, food, and other materials through out the plant.

root

plant organ that absorbs water and minerals from the soil, transports those nutrients to the stem, and anchors the plant in the ground; may also serve as food stage organs.

seed

adaptive reproductive structure of seed plants consisting of and embryo, a food supply, and a protective coat; protects zygote or embryo from drying out and may also aid in dispersal.

stem

plant organ that provides structural support for upright growth and contains tissues for transporting food, water, and other materials from one part of the plant to another; may also serves as a food storage organ.

vascular plant

plants that have vascular tissues for the transport of water, food, and other materials throughout the plant; enables taller growth and survival on land.

vascular tissue

vascular tissues found in vascular plants composed of tube like, elongated cells through which water, food, and other materials are transported throughout the plant; include xylem and phloem.

cone

scaly structures produced produced by some seed plants that support male or female reproductive and are the sites of seed production. receptor cells in the retina adapted for sharp

frond

...in ferns, large, complex leaves that grow upward from the rhizome; often divided into pinnae that are attached to a central stipe.

rhizome

...thick, underground stem produced by ferns and other vascular plants; often functions as an organ for food storage.

annuals

...anthophyte that lives for one year or less

biennials

...anthrophyte that flowers only after two years of growth

cotyledon

...structure of seed plant embryo that stores of absorbs food for the developing embryo; may become the plant' first leaves when the plant emerges from the soil

deciduous plant

...plants that lose all of their leaves at the same time; an adaptation for reducing water loss when water is unavailable

dicotyledon

...class of anthophytes that have two cotyledons, reticulate leaf venation, and flower parts in multiples of four or five

embryo

...earliest stage of growth and development of both plants and animals; differences and similarities among embryos can provide evidence of evolution; the young diploid sporophyte of a plant

fruit

...seed-containing ripened ovary of an anthophyte flower; may be fleshy or dry

monocotyledon

...class of anthophytes that have one cotyledon, parallel leaf venation, and flower parts in multiples of three

ovule

...in seed plants, the sporophyte structure surrounding the developing female gametophyte; forms the seed after fertilization

perennials

...anthophyte that lives for several years

pollen gain

...in seed plants, structure in which the male gametophyte develops; consists of sperm cells, nutrients, and a protective outer covering

apical merstem

...regions of actively dividing cells near the tips of roots and stems; allows roots and stem =s to increase in lenght.

collenchyma

...long, flexible plant cells with unevenly thickened cell walls; most common in actively growing tissues.

cork cambium

...lateral meristem that produces a tough protective covering for the surface of stems and roots.

epidermis

...in plants, the out most layer of cells that covers and protects all parts of the plant. in humans and some other animals, the out most protective layer composed of an outer layer of dead cells and an inner layer of living cells.

meristem

...regions of actively dividing cells in plants.

pholem

...taxonic grouping of similar classes.

parenchyma

...most abundant type of plant cell; spherical cells with thin, cell walls and a large central vacuole; important for storage and food production.

sclerenchyma

...plant cells with thick, rigid cell walls; provide support for the plant and are a major component of vascular tissue; includes fibers and stone cells.

stomata

...openings in the cuticle of a leaf epidermis that control gas exchange for respiration and photosynthesis.

vascular cambium

lateral meristem that produces new xylem and phloem cells in the stem and roots.

vessel element

...hollow, tubular cells in the xylem of anthophytes; conduct water and minerals from the roots to the stem; have open ends through which water passes free from cell to cell.

xylem

...vascular plant tissue composed of tubular cells that transport water and minerals from the roots to the rest of the plant; water conducting cells include tracheids and vessel elements.

endodermis

...single layer of cells that forms a waterproof seal around a root's vascular tissue; controls the flow of water and dissolved ions into the root.

mesophyll

...chlorophyll-rich photosynthetic tissue of a leaf;may have a palisade or spongy form.

periole

...in plants, the stalk that joins the leaf blade to the stem.

root cap

...tough, protective layer of parenchyma cells that covers the tip of a root.

anther

...pollen-producing structure located at the tip of a flower's stamen.

ovary

...in plants, the bottom portion of the pistil of a flower that enlarges into one or more ovules each containing one egg.

petals

...leaflike flower organs, usually brightly colored structures arranged in a circle around the top of a flower stem.

pistil

...female reproduction structure of a flower; bottom portion forms the ovary.

sepals

...leaflike, usually green structures arranged in a circle around the top of a flower stem buy below the petals.

stamens

...male reproductive structure of a flower consisting of an anther and a filament.

dormancy

...period of inactivity in a mature seed prior to germination; seed remains dormant until conditions are favorable for growth and development of the new plant.

endosperm

...triloid nucleus formed during double fertilization in anthophytes; forms a food storage tissue that supports development of the growing embryo.

germination

...beginning of the development of an embryo into a new plant.

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