(202 BCE-220 CE): confucianism established as a part of the official classics; expansions westward; silk road
(618-907): a great cultural fusion, imperial expansion- the rise of theatrical arts
(1368-1644): the emergence of the middle class
thee last of the chinese imperial dynasties; the rise of the manchus
(1912-1949): major social and cultural reforms
establishment of the people's republic in china
Period of "Reform and Openness"
"New Wave" music movements; increased modernization, Westernization, and interests in reviving ancient Chinese musical traditions
-seven string zither
-an instrument of the literi-scholars poets
-confucian,taoist and buddhist thoughts influence performance and learning
-a long tradition of yaji(elegant gathering) among qin players and their qin friends
Qin Tablature Notation—Jianzi Pu
--Clusters of abbreviated Chinese characters which symbolize the notational meanings
--Depict how to make the pitches rather than the pitches themselves
The Literati Qin tradition
a tradition mainly practiced by chinese scholars, ho pursue self-cultivation in music
The Artists Qin tradition
a tradition that emphasizes on the performing techniques to express emotions and depict some imageries
--based on an ancient Buddhist chant
--slow and contemplative style
--overtones as bell-like harmonics
--a representative piece of the Literati tradition
--use pentatonic scales and sliding notes to imitate the flows of a creek
--a representative piece of the Artist qin tradition-highly skilled
--came to china from the middle east via silk road
mouth organ inspired the construction of the harmonica and accordion
--four stringed lute
--performed in intimate settings (teahouse) ---Music pieces: wen (lyrical) and wu (martial) --Programmatic, uses tablature notation, dynamics
Biwa (Japan) similar to Pipa (China)
two stringed fiddle
--transverse bamboo flute with 6 finger holes
--first seen on Chinese art depictions in 9th century BC
--More than 300 kinds of Chinese Operas
--Telling dramatic stories enacted by costumed performers wearing makeup
-The art of face-painting: personalities of the characters
--A synthesis of music, dance, mime, acting and
--Subtle movements that have deep hidden meanings
--Sparse stage scenery
painted-face male role
clown--depicted by white coloring around nose/eyes
meaning the musical drama or tune of
--A dominant position over other older regional theaters (16th-18th century)
-Mother of Chinese Operas
--Proclaimed by UNESCO as "Masterpieces of Oral and Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity" in 2001
--Written by Tang Xianzu (湯顯祖) in the Ming Dynasty and first performed in 1598 at the Pavilion of Prince Teng (滕王閣)
--Featuring the guimendan role (virtuous lady) --Music Example: Scene 8—A Walk in the Garden
What's the ninties gonna bring?
"Jiushi niandai zenmenyang"
--had that vigorous feel
--As all the nation smelted steel
sang "going down to the country"
model operas were revolutionary
breakdance but that's not all
There was a fever for rock and roll
Romantic popular songs
--Imported from the West as a media product
-Sinified jazz or orchestral music, which fused Western big band format and harmony with Chinese folk melodies
--Shanghai as a fertile ground (EMI, RCA/Victor)
--Identified as "yellow" or "pornographic" music after 1949 due to its association with bourgeois life style and prostitution
-Popular music ceased to exist by the late 1950s, was replaced by "revolutionary songs" or "mass music."
Surpassing Great Britain and Catching up with the United States within TWO years by smelting steel—Mao Zedong
Mass Music in 1950s
--Legitimized and institutionalized form of popular
--The purposing of making music is for promoting production, rather than for entertainment
--Eliminated personal individual emotions
--Ideological and political struggles
--Getting rid of the tail of feudalism and eliminating the decadent influence of capitalism--"Going down to the country"--Intellectuals and urban youth were sent to countryside to be re- educated by peasants and workers.
primary genre in cultural revolution
Revolutionary odel opera
Music In Cultural Revolution
--Cultures of workers, peasants, and soldiers were privileged
--The majority of traditional repertoire was identified as the Feudalist weed, and banned consequently
Reform and Opening (gaige kaifang)
--Economic reform: from planned economy to free
--Ownership: Personal property
--Culture: starting to import cultural products from the West
--the leading rock singer in 1980s-1990s:
--"Nothing to My Name" (一無所有), May 9th, 1986
--the "Bruce Springsteen" of modern China
--"Nothing to My Name"
--Direct expression of inner emotion and individualism
in the face of an oppressive society
Tiananmen Square Uprising (June, 4th 1989)
--Democratic Movement initiated by college students against corruption and autarchy of the Chinese Communist Party
--Nothing to My Name was used as one of the protest songs in the demonstration
--Cui's music was banned after 1989, and he didn't resume his public performance until 1996
--Originating from songs by the urban populace i n the 19th century
--Unfolded by the advent of the radio, LPs, and th eaters in the beginning of the 20th century: Neo‐Folk Song (신민요); adaptation of Western music ----Development and inJlux of various popular mu sic genres throughout the 20th century: Trot in the 1960s‐70s; Folk and Rock in the 1970s; Met al and Ballade in the 1980s; Dance Music, Rap, Reggae, and Hip‐hop in the 1990s
girl group in k-pop
-Rapid increase in the 2000s
--Hired, trained and managed by big entertainment companies
--Dance music - division of singing members and danc ing members
--Good‐looking face and body Visual objectiJication - sexualization of girls
girl group bands
--GIRLS' GENERATION (sonyŏsidae, 소녀시대)
--Hip‐hop by T aka Mirae Yoon
--Rock by Yoon Ah Kim
--Trot by Kayarang (가야랑)
--"Land of the Rising Sun"
geography of japan
Comprises of more than 3,000 mountainous islands
--a distinctly indigenous Japanese culture emerged, noted for its art, poetry, and literature
--The lyrics of modern Japan's national anthem, "Kimi ga Yo" were written during this time, as well as "The Tale of Genji" (performed in Noh drama)
--Japan's feudal era was characterized by the emergence of a ruling class of warriors, the samurai
--Country ruled by a military leader - shogun
Commodore Matthew Perry and the U.S. Navy forced the opening of Japan to the outside world with the Convention of Kanagawa
The Boshin War of 1867-1868
led to the resignation of the shogunate, and the Meiji Restoration established a government centered around the emperor.
modernization and expansionism
enters WWII as an ally of Germany and the Axis powers
--traditional form of Japanese theater "the art of singing and dancing"
--Derives from the verb kabuku - "to lean" or "to be out of the ordinary"
kabuki began as a female form of drama, with women playing the parts of men and women
women were banned from stage performance and the role playing was taken over by men
symbolic face painting in kabuki
Woman portrayed in kabuki, played by a man
• Most famous plot in Kabuki is that of the double- suicide
• Plays with such endings were banned in the 1700s
• Kabuki eventually fell out of favor and was taken over by bunraku (puppet theater) as the entertainment genre for lower classes
• After elimination of the samurai class in the 1800s, kabuki modernized and became popular once more among upper classes
• Noh drama is the oldest surviving form of Japanese theater.
• It combines music, dance, and acting to communicate Buddhist themes.
• Often the plot of a Noh play recreates famous scenes from well-known works of Japanese literature such as The Tale of Genji (written in the Heian period (794-1185).
• The typical Noh play is not a dramatic reenactment of an event but its retelling... through precise movement.
• A Noh play portrays one all-encompassing emotion dominating the main character, the shite
• Whether jealousy, rage, or sorrow, all music, gesture, dance, and recitation are used to build the emotion to its final climax at the close of the play.
• The singing chorus often echoes the words of the characters, but it may also speak for them (like a chorus in a Greek drama).
• Nothing in the play is improvised - it is performed in its 14th century forms.
what are noh drama made out of
-- are made out of cypress and painted
• They are purposefully painted with bland expressions
• Emotion is portrayed through movement and body gesture
how many instrument is noh drama accompanied by
--2 Japanese drums(Taiko, Tsutsumi)
• Traditional form of puppet theater founded in Osaka in 1684
• The puppets range from 2 - 4 feet tall
• Three kinds of performers take part in a bunraku performance:
Ningyōtsukai - Puppeteers (perform in full view of the audience, generally wearing black robes)
Tayu - the chanters Shamisen players
• Bunraku plots are similar to kabuki stories
• As in kabuki, the most popular plot in bunraku is one that ends in the suicide of two lovers who are forbidden (for social, cultural reasons) to be together
• Also popular is the 17th century story of 47 ronin (warriors) who avenge death of their master and then commit communal harakiri (ritual suicide)
In bunraku, prior to the performance, the chanter holds up the text and bows before it, promising to follow it faithfully.