A & P Chapter 13 & 14 Test Review

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Right and Left Atrium

two upper heart chambers (receiving chambers) are called...

Right and Left Ventricles

two lower heart chambers (discharging chambers) are called...

Myocardium

wall of each heart chamber is composed of cardiac muscle tissue called...

Endocardium

smooth lining of heart chambers

Pericardium

two layered fibrous sac with a lubricated space between the two layers

Visceral Pericardium or Epicardium

the inner layer of the pericardium that hugs the heart is called which two names

Parietal Pericardium

the outer layer of the pericardium is called...

Pericarditis

inflammation of the pericardium

Endocarditis

inflammation of the endocardium

Systole and Diastole (lubb & dubb)

each complete heart beat equals...

Atrioventricular Valves

tricuspid and bicuspid (mitral) are what kind of valves

Aortic Semilunar

found at the beginning of the aorta

Pulmonary Semilunar

found at the beginning of the pulmonary artery

Tricuspid Valve

between right atrium and right ventricle, cusps are flaps of the valves

Pulmonary Valve

between the right ventricle and pulmonary artery

Mitral or Bicuspid Valve

between the left atrium and the left ventricle

Incompetent

valve disorder where valves leak allowing some blood to flow backward into the chamber from which it came

Stenosed

valve disorder where valves are narrower than normal, reducing blood flow

Rheumatic Heart Disease

streptococcal infection, when strep throat isn't treated or antibiotic is not finished this can occur

Myocardial Infarction

heart attack is aka...

Angina Pectoris

severe chest pain caused by inadequate oxygen to the heart, lasts 15-30 min, will resolve with rest or nitroglycerin

Sinoatrial Node

the pacemaker, located in wall of right atrium near opening of superior vena cava; SA

Atrioventricular Node

located on right atrium along lower part of interatrial septum; AV

AV Bundle/Bundle of HIS

located in the septum of the ventricle

Purkinje Fibers

located in the walls of the ventricles, make ventricles contract

P Wave

depolarization (discharge) of the atria; atrium contracting; SA Node has fired off

QRS Complex

depolarization (discharge) of the ventricles; ventricles contracting

T Wave

repolarization (recharge) of the ventricles

Cardiac Dysrhythmia

abnormality of heart rhythm

Bradycardia

slow heart rate; less than 60 bpm

Tachycardia

rapid heart rate; more than 100 bpm

Fibrillation

condition in which cardiac muscle fibers are out of step, producing no effective pumping action; quivers like jello

Congestive Heart Failure

inability of the left ventricle to pump effectively, resulting in congestion of the systemic and pulmonary circulations

Coronary Artery Bypass Graft

surgical therapy for coronary artery disease

SA Node, AV Node, Right Bundle Branch, Purkinje Fibers, Bundle of HIS, Left Bundle Branch

Arteries

carries blood away from the heart and toward capillaries

Veins

carries blood toward the heart and away from capillaries

Capillaries

carry blood from the arterioles to the venules, smallest blood vessel in the body, only one layer

Tunica Intima

with arteries it's the smooth inner layer of the blood vessels that consists of endothelial cells

Tunica Media

in arteries it's the smooth, thick muscle; important in blood pressure regulation

Tunica Externa

in arteries it's the thin outer layer of elastic tissue

Tunica Intima

in veins it's the inner layer, valves prevent retrograde movement of blood

Tunica Media

it's the smooth, thin muscle in veins

Tunica Externa

it's the heavy layer of fibrous connective tissue in many veins

Necrosis

dead, decayed tissue

Arteriosclerosis

reduces flow of blood, possibly causing ischemia that may progress to necrosis (gangrene)

Atherosclerosis

type of arteriosclerosis caused by lipids; lipids build up on inside wall of blood vessels and can partially or totally block blood flow

Aneurysm

abnormal widening of arterial wall

Cerebrovascular Accident or Stroke

ischemia of brain tissue caused by embolism or hemorrhage

Varicose Veins

enlarged veins in which blood pools because the valves are not working right, usually in the lower legs

Varices

another name for varicose veins...

Thrombophlebitis

phlebitis accompanied by thrombus formation; may result in fatal pulmonary embolism

Phlebitis

vein inflammation

Arteries

blood pressure exists in all blood vessels and is highest in the...

Veins

blood pressure exists in all blood vessels and is lowest in the...

Blood Volume

the larger the volume, the more pressure is exerted on vessel walls

Strength of Heart Contractions

affect cardiac output, stronger heartbeart increases pressure, weaker beat decreases it

Heart Rate

increased rate increases pressure, decreased rate decreases pressure

Blood Viscosity

less than normal viscosity decreases pressure, more than normal viscosity increases pressure

Resistance to blood flow

affected by many factors, including the vasomotor mechanism

Cardiogenic Shock

caused by heart failure

Hypovolemic Shock

drop in blood volume that causes blood pressure and blood flow to drop, also can be caused by loss on interstitial fluid due to blood loss

Neurogenic Shock

caused by nerve condition that dilates blood vessels and thus reduces blood flow; loss of sympathetic impulses sent to smooth muscles of blood vessels

Anaphylactic Shock

caused by a severe allergic reaction characterized by blood vessel dilation

Septic Shock

results from complications of septicema bacteria

Septicema

toxins in blood from infection

SA Node, AV Node, Bundle of HIS, Bundle Branches, Purkinje Fibers

electrical conduction pathway, 5 of them...

Heart Murmur

abnormal heart sounds often caused by abnormal valves

Endocarditis

inflammation of the membrane lining of the valves and chambers of the heart

Myocarditis

may be viral, bacterial or fungal infection, may be result of systemic disease, inflammation of the myocardium

Pericarditis

inflammation of the pericardium that covers the heart muscle

Ischemia

decreased blood supply to a tissue; decreased supply of oxygen

Cardiac Cycle

one complete heartbeat

Gangrene

happens when necrosis has been going on for a long time

EKG

tells the contracting of the atrium and the ventricles

Arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules, vein

[[[[[[[[[=====()=====]]]]]]]]]]]

Superior Vena Cava, Inferior Vena Cava, Right Atrium, Tricuspid Valve, Right Ventricle, Pulmonary Valve, Pulmonary Artery, Pulmonary Veins, Left Atrium, Bicuspid/Mitral Valve, Left Ventricle, Aortic Valve, Aorta

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