Organizational Behavior Chaper 6

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dyadic interaction

as occurring when 2 people emit behavior in each other's presence

bahavior sequence

consists of things that people say and do that are directed at some goal

instrumental

in that they move the individual towards the goal

consummatory

in that they engender the individual's enjoyment of the goal state

interdependence theiory

analyzes the patterens of interaction betweeb people in terms of outcomes that people incur in the form of rewards and costs

rewards

are the satisfactions that a person recieves from interacting with another

costs

are the negative consequences of emitting a sequence of behavior

particularism

depend a lot on who is providing the resource

social echange theory

people in relationships exchange rewards and costs to relative to what each partner has come to expect out of the relationship in general, relative to the rewards and costs they could find in some other relationship

satisfaction

they derive from their relationship and how commite they are to the relationship

comparison level /CL

refers to what a person believes he or she is entitled to in a given relationship

comparison level for alternatives / CLalt

refers to the alternatives that a person has to his or her current situation

correspondent outcomes

because what is good for one person is good for the other person

equality

refers to dividing resources exactly between people

equality rule

states that you pay the students based on how much work they did

needs-based rule

states that you pay the students according to how mcuh they need the money

exchange relationships

people give and receive benefits with the expectation of receiving comparable benefit in return soon afterward, people dont feel a long term responsibility for others in the business

communal relationships

people feel a personal responsibility for the needs of other people, the idea is that if a person has been a part of an organization, the organization should stand by this person in their time of need

openness and self-disclosure

from- limited to safe socially acceptable topics
to-disclosure goes beyond safe areas to include personally sensitive, private, and controversial topics, and aspects of self

knowlege of each other

from-surface biographic knowlege impressionistic in nature
to- knowlege is multifaceted and extens to core aspects of personality, needs, and style

prediciability of Other's reaction and responses

from-limited to socially expected or role-related responses, and those based on 1st impressions or repeated surface encounters
to-predictability of other's reactions extends beyong stereotypical exchange and inclues a knowledge of the contingencies affecting the other's reactions

uniqueness of interaction

to-exchanges are stereotypical, guided by prevailing social norms or role expectations
to-exchanges are idiosyncractic to 2 people, guiede by norms that are unique to the relationship

multi-modality of communication

from- largely limited to verbal channels of communication and sterotypical or unintended nonverbal channels
to- includes multiple modalities of communication, including nonverbal and verbal shorthand specific to the relationship or the individuals invovles; less restrictiveness of nonverbal

substitutablity of communication

to-little substitution among alternative models of communicaation
from-possession of and ability to use alternative modes of comminication to convey the same message

capacity of conflict and evaluation

from-limited capacity for conflict; use of conflict avoidance techniques; reluctance to criticize
to-readiness and ability to express conflict and make positive and negative evaulations

spontaneity of exchange

from-interactions tend to be formal or comfortably informal as prescribed by prevailing soical norms
to- Greater informality and ease of interaction; movement across topical areas occurs readily and without hesitation and formality

voice

is a constructive, active intercention, occurs when a person actively discusses problems, seeks help, tries to change some aspect of the situation or is otherwise positively engaged, tyring to improve conditions

loyalty

is a constructive, but passive course of action, passibely waits for things to improce, optimistically waiting for improvement

neglect

is a destructive, passive course of action, the person engaging in this is passively allowing the relationship to deterioate, this person has not been satisfied in the relationship and has made low investnments in the relationship

exit

is a destructuve, active course of action, refers to actively ending a relationship, refers to actively ending a relationship, a person might search for a different job, a transfer, or quit. The partner could simply leave the relationship

trust

is an expression of confidence in another person or group of people that you will not be put at risk, harmed, or injured by thier actions, positive expectation that another person will not act opportunistically, measn that we could be exploited by that person

5 key dimensions of trust

integrity, competence, consistency, loyalty, and openness

integrity

refers to honesty and truthfulness

competence

encompasses our belief that someone possesses the technical and interpersonal skills to carry through with his or her promise

consistency

relates to a person's reliability, predictability, and judgement in handling situations

loyalty

is the willingness to protect and save face for another person

openness

is our belief that the other person is not misrepresenting himself or herself and is neither omittimg nor committing falsehoods

Deterrence-based trust

predicted on fear of reprisal if trust is violated , follow through on thier promises because they fear the consequences if they violate the trust, is effective to the extent that someone has the ability to make credible threats and carry our punishments, trust often invovles contracts and various forms of bureaucracy and someitmes, surveillance.

knowledge-based trust

trust that derives from a person's history of interaction with someone, trust is based on personal repository of information about another person

identification trust

trust that is based on a person's ability to empathize with another person, it allows one person to act as an agent for another person, the idea is that people understand one another so well and have such aligned interests that each can act on behalf of the other

human capital

is a composite of your education, skills, and experience, it is a summation of your talent and expertise,

social capital

refers to your web of personal and business networks of people, information , ideas, leads, business, opportunities and so on.

clique network

Gregory has a network of relatively close colleagues; the key people in Gregory's network all know and trust one another

structural holes

gaps between different people and groups

clique network advantages

high cohesion, loyalty and support, increased efficiency of decision making

clique network disadvantages

redundant communication, biased communication, groupthink, dispensable members

boundary-spanning Network advantages

leverages diversity, capitalizes on opportunity, greater innovation, earlier promotions, higher salaries

boundary-spanning network disadvantages

greater conflict in both task and relationships, power stuggles

boundary-spanners

connect the network with other parts of the company. they step out of thier functional comfort zone and consult with different kinds of people

information brokers

keep the different subgroups in the network together

peripheral specialists

hold the specialized expertise in the company

work network

with whom do you exchange info. as part of your daily work

social network

with whom do you check in at the office to find out what is going on

innovation network

with whom do you kick around new ideas or think about wild courses of actions

expert knowledge network

to whom do you turn for expertise and advice

career guidance network

who do you go to for advice about your future

Learning network

whom do you seek out to improve what you are doing

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