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ENDOCRINE refers to the secretion of __________ chemical signals in the form of __________

INTERCELLULAR; HORMONES

An AUTOCRINE chemical messenger (acts locally/travels some distance) and stimulates:

ACTS LOCALLY; the cell that released it or same cell type

A PARACRINE chemical messenger (acts locally/travels some distance) and stimulates:

ACTS LOCALLY; nearby cells

A NEUROTRANSMITTER is a chemical messenger secreted by __________ into a __________ __________

NEURON; SYNAPTIC CLEFT

An ENDOCRINE chemical messenger is secreted into the __________ and (acts locally/travels some distance) on target tissues:

BLOODSTREAM; TRAVELS SOME DISTANCE

A NEUROHORMONE is a chemical messenger secreted by __________, which (enters/does not enter) the bloodstream and functions as a hormone

NEURONS; ENTERS

A __________ is a type of neurotransmitter that, when secreted by a neuron, diffuses out into the CSF and influences the activity of the brain (examples include serotonin and acetylcholine)

NEUROMODULATOR

White blood cell stimulating their own replication is an example of an __________ chemical messenger:

AUTOCRINE

Histamine, released by white blood cells during an allergic reaction, is an example of an __________ chemical messenger:

PARACRINE

Hormones that control the release and inhibition of other endocrine hormones:

TROPIC

TROPIC hormones are produced and secreted by the __________ __________, and their release is controlled by the __________

ANTERIOR PITUITARY; HYPOTHALAMUS

A __________ is a secreted or excreted chemical from the body that triggers a behavioral response in others of the same species

PHEROMONE

Oxytocin, ADH and norepinephrine are examples of a __________ chemical messenger

NEUROHORMONE

A hormone is a(n) __________ chemical messenger that is secreted into the __________ travels to a distant target tissue and binds to specific receptors to produce a response

ENDOCRINE; BLOODSTREAM

Hormones (sometimes/often/always) enter the bloodstream to travel to their target cells.

OFTEN

Systems in which the hypothalamus plays an important role

ENDOCRINE, NERVOUS

System that resembles the postal service delivering a "bulk mailing"

ENDOCRINE

System that uses certain molecules (i.e.; epinephrine) as neurotransmitters

NERVOUS

System that uses certain molecules (i.e.; epinephrine) as hormones

ENDOCRINE

The nervous system secretes __________, which are released (into the bloodstream/directly onto target cells)

NEUROTRANSMITTERS; directly onto target cells

The endocrine system secretes __________, which are released (into the bloodstream/directly onto target cells)

HORMONES; into the bloodstream

The nervous system responds (more quickly/slower) than the endocrine system

MORE QUICKLY

The (nervous/endocrine) system produces longer lasting effects

ENDOCRINE

Hormones of the endocrine system fluctuate in concentration within the bloodstream and can be described as __________-__________ signals

AMPLITUDE-MODULATED

Action potentials of the nervous system vary in frequency to produce weak or strong stimuli, and can be described as __________-__________ signals

FREQUENCY-MODULATED

A hormone's life span is expressed as its __________, or the amount of time it takes for:

HALF-LIFE; 50% of the circulating hormone to be removed from the circulation and excreted

Hormones that require transport assistance to reach their target before they are degraded are called:

BOUND HORMONES

Hormones that 1) do not require transport assistance or 2) dissociate from their binding proteins at target tissues are called:

FREE HORMONES

Only (free/bound) hormones are able to diffuse through capillary walls and bind to target tissues

FREE

The half-life of some hormones is prolonged because:

they can circulate in the blood stream bound to binding proteins

Hormones that bind to binding proteins have (shorter/longer) half-lives than hormones that do not require binding proteins

LONGER

What are the 2 chemical categories of hormones?

1) lipid-soluble
2) water-soluble

Most lipid-soluble hormones are transported in the blood as (free/bound) hormones

BOUND

The half-life of some lipid-soluble hormones is prolonged when:

they are bound to binding proteins

Hormones (are/are not/are sometimes) secreted at a constant rate

ARE SOMETIMES

__________ is the process in which lipid-soluble hormones become attached to water-soluble molecules from the __________, allowing excretion from body at a greater rate

CONJUGATION; LIVER

Hormones are degraded by __________, removed from bloodstream by the __________ and__________, and excreted in __________ and __________

ENZYMES; LIVER and KIDNEY; URINE and BILE

What are the 3 mechanisms that stimulate hormonal release?

1) Humoral
2) Neural
3) Hormonal

What are the 3 mechanisms by which hormonal release is inhibited?

1) release of counteractive inhibiting-hormone (humoral)
2) prevention of hormone secretion (neural)
3) prevention of hormone release (hormonal)

The self-limiting process by which further hormone secretion is prevented once a set point is achieved

NEGATIVE FEEDBACK MECHANISM

The self-promoting process by which the stimulation of hormone secretion increases over time

POSITIVE FEEDBACK MECHANISM

The process by which a target cell decreases its sensitivity to a hormone through a decrease in receptor number

DOWN-REGULATION

The process by which a target cell increases its sensitivity to a hormone through an increase in receptor number

UP-REGULATION

Process by which a single hormone, binding to a membrane-bound receptor activates G proteins, which in turn activate enzymes that produce an enormous amount of final product

CASCADE EFFECT

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