Biology Ch. 15, 16

40 terms by vsauter

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parsimony

quest for simplest explanation of observed phenomena

clade

group of species that includes ancestral species and all descendants

monophyletic

inclusive group of ancestros and descendants

protobiont

aggregate of abiotically produced molecules surrounded by membrane structure

ribozymes

RNA that carries out enzyme like functions

continental drift

all land on Earth was once one great mass

pangaea

plate movements brought all previously separated landmasses together into supercontinent (end of Paleozoic era)

convergent evolution

species from different evolutionary branches may come to resemble one another if the live in similar environments

analogy

similarity due to convergent evolution

pathogens

disease causing agents (bacteria)

peptidoglycan

unique material contained in bacterial cell walls

cocci

spherical prokaryotic cells

bacilli

rod-shape prokaryotes

photoautotrophs

harness sunlight for energy, use carbon dioxide for carbon

photoheterotrophs

obtain energy from sunlight, get carbon from organic sources

chemoautotrophs

harvest energy from inorganic chemicals, use carbon from carbon dioxide to make organic molecules

chemoheterotrophs

acquire both energy & carbon from organic molecules

halophiles

archaea that live in salty places

thermophiles

thrive in very hot water

methanogens

live in anaerobic environments, give off methane as waste product

proteobacteria

diverse clad of gram negative bacteria that includes five subgroups

chamydias

live inside eukaryotic host cels

spirochetes

group of helical bacteria that spiral through environment by means of rotating internal filaments

gram positive bacteria

group of bacteria with a cell wall structurally less complex, contains more peptidoglycan than that of gram negative bacteria

cyanobacteria

only prokaryotes with plant like, oxygen generating photosynthesis

exotoxins

proteins secreted by bacterial cells, include some poisons

endotoxins

components of outer membrane of gram negative bacteria, released when cell dies or digested by defensive cell

algae

autotrophic protists

protozoans

heterotrophic, eat bacteria & other protists

symbiosis

close association between organisms of two or more species

secondary endosymbiosis

process by which protist diversity hypothesized to have evolved from symbiotic association that arose when autotrophic eukaryotic protists was engulfed by heterotrophic eukaryotic protist

diplomonads

ancient heterotrophic protists

parasites

derive nutrition from living hosts

parabasalids

heterotrophic protists that have modified mitochondria that generate some energy anaerobically

euglenozoans

diverse clade of protists who share crystalline rods inside flagella

alveolates

characterized by membrane enclosed sacs beneath plasma membrane

dinoflagellates

common component of marine & freshwater phytoplankton

alternation of generations

multicellular diploid forms alternates with multicellular haploid form

gametophyte

multicellular haploid form

sporophyte

multicellular diploid form

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