Indonesia's diverse musical genres
were significant to the "Unity in diversity" movement after independence from the Dutch in 1945
A style of gamelan music that is virtuosic and often combines elements from other musical genres.
In Hindu-Balinese cosmology Gamelan music
communicates with and between the upper, middle, and lower worlds.
Gamelan Beleganjur music was originally created
evil spirits of the Lower World
Beleganjur music intimidates and drives away evil spirits (bhutas and leyaks)who are said to travel
to the earthly Middle World in order to cause harm to people and departing souls (atma) of the dead.
Balinese cremation ceremonies
commonly utilize Beleganjur music
7. The Beleganjur cremation procession begins at
home of the deceased and ends at the Temple of the Dead, where the cremation occurs.
The human remains are
carried in a tall tower called a wadah
In Balinese cosmology crossroads are
dangerous places where evil spirits hang out. The beleganjur music becomes less interlocking or syncopated at the crossroads.
Beleganjur music was used for
actual battles in Bali before Dutch rule. Now it is used in martial arts shadow puppet plays known as wayang kulit as well as musical battles between beleganjur groups known as lomba beleganjur.
In Indian classical music Gharana are
elaborate melodic systems utilized throughout Indian classical music
systems of rhythm and meter in Indian classical music
In India approximately
200 Languages are spoken, 1,600 Dialects, and Hindi and English are recognized as the national languages.
Hindustani music follows
the ancient Hindu scriptures called Vedas
Stories about Radha who loved and sought after the god Krishna make up
the lyrical content of almost all Hindustani classical music.
India's film songs
syllables which indicate the pitches of a raga
a Sufi musical tradition featuring songs lyrics about love, longing, or devotion to the divine (Allah).
Sufi term meaning the state of oneness or ecstasy with the divine which can be reached through music.
Hindustani vocal music of North India that has a long and well recorded history due to the patronage of noble classes
Khyal performances begin with
alap, in "free rhythm" which lasts about one third of a performance
when the tala ("rhythmic cycle") enters. This section follows the alap
In the 1960s Vishwa Mohan Bhatt, a classically trained Indian musician, modified a
guitar to play raga like a sitar
Vishwa Mohan Bhatt Wrote
"India" in 1961 which featured improvised passages over a drone
John Coltrane played in
Miles Davis's band and was kicked out because of drug usage. While detoxing he had a spiritual awakening.
In 1965 George Harrison
of the Beatles played a sitar solo in the song "Norwegian wood."
"Within You, Without You" on Sergeant Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band featured
tabla, sitar, and raga-like features.
29. John McLaughlin left Miles Davis's band to
his own group which he named the Mahavishnu Orchestra which featured Indian, Jazz, and rock influences.
In 1975 McLaughlin formed another group called
Shakti in which all other members were Indian classical musicians by training.
At the time of filming The Gods Must be Crazy, white South Africans had moved the Kung San off their land, placed them in concentration camps, and forced them to
fight for white South Africans against other Namibians.
The director of the film, Jamie Uys, paid the Kung San to
enact false European stereotypes of Africans on screen in order to provide comical entertainment for popular audiences in Europe and the United States
Even though the Kung San were paid very little, The Gods Must be Crazy won
the César film award in France and the Grand Prix at the International Film Festival.
Early Christian missionaries from Europe in the 17th, 18th, and 19th centuries "made examples" of
Africans playing music which they referred to as "Asses Music" and "Noise."
The Ewe are
a people located on the southeast corner of Ghana
Agbekor is an
Ewe war dance, used when entering into battle with the Fon, a neighboring ethnic group
the use of two metric frameworks simultaneously, or in regular alternation
a kingdom of people living in Northern Ghana
It is in musical form that Dagomba history has
been preserved over the centuries
accompaniment drums that Dagomba drummers historically view as having non-Dagomba origins.
Dagomba lungas are referred to by many Westerners as
"talking drums," a term attributed to drums across much of West Africa and the rest of the continent.
"Praise name drumming" is
the art of reconstructing history through the honorific "talk" of the lungas
Metaphor and coded language are
common lyrical devices used in Dagomba and Ewe society.
a plucked idiophone ("thumb piano") played by the Shona people of Zimbabwe.
The Mbira is considered
a "telephone" to the ancestors
A Jeli is
a praise singer and history keeper of the Mande culture
The Kouyate family of jelilu traces its lineage back to the first Mande chief, King Sunjata and therefore
hold the highest rank among jeli families
A xylophone type idiophone that is constructed of between 17 and 21 hard wooden slats of different lengths suspended over a wooden frame
The Kora is an
instrument played by the hereditary class of musicians of Mande culture known as jelilu or jelis.
Koni or Ngoni is
a plucked chordophone like a banjo