Abnormal Chapter 1-4

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If you wanted a career in which you focus on detecting, assessing, and treating abnormal patterns of functioning, you should look into becoming a:

clinical practitioner

a student in an abnormal psychological class receives the highest test grade in a class of 50 students. this behavior is considered abnormal because it is:

deviant

the explicit and implicit rules for proper conduct that a society establishes are referred to as:

norms

behavior that violates legal normals is:

criminal/abnormal

the history, values, institutions, technology, and arts of a society make up that society's...

behaviors valued by culture

brilliant scholars or champion athletes are not considered clinically abnormal because..

their behaviors are unusual to the norm but do not cause distress, dysfunction, or danger.

Mario is so miserable that he can barely tolerate living. According to the definition to abnormality, this description is an example of:

distress

an individual has a 9 to 5 job. However, this person seldom gets up early enough to be at work on time, and expresses great distress over this fact. This individual's behavior would be considered abnormal because it is:

dysfunctional and deviant

which aspect of the definition of abnormality includes the inability to care for oneself and work productively?

dysfunction

thomas szasz's view about the idea of "mental illness" is that:

most everyone suffers most of the time.

a researcher spends 15 or more hours per day conducting experiments or doing library reading and records observations on color-coded index cards. this person lives alone in the country, but doesn't interfere with others' lives. the best description of the researcher's behavior is that it is:

eccentric

several researchers have shown that in a typical year in the US about what % of adults show disturbances severe enough to need clinical treatment?

more than 15%

the practice of trephination was probably used to:

treat abnormal behavior such as hallucinations or to remove bone splinters or blood clots

the use of exorcism suggests a belief that what we call mental illness was caused by:

evil spirits

if you were being treated by a shaman, you would most likely be undergoing:

exorcism

bob experiences unshakable sadness. his friends have given up trying to cheer him up because nothing works. an ancient greek physician would have labeled his condition:

melancholia

roughly 2000 years agoa greek or roman physician would most likely diagnose a person experiencing an overall decline in intellectual functioning as suffering from:

delusions

jeff's left arm suddenly went numb. his physician was unable to find a physical cause of the problem. jeff is apparently experiencing what the ancient greek physicians called:

hysteria

greek and roman physicians described a person with mania as having symptoms of

frenzied activity and euphoria

sam once found a $100 on the sidewalk and did not turn it into the police. recently he has become more and more convinced that the police know this and have been following him and searching his house. he is certain that they mean to arrest him and put him in jail. his behavior involves what the ancient greeks referred to as:

delusions

as you are talking to your advisor, he stares at the wall and asks you if you see the ants crawling on it (there are none). Your advisor is:

hallucinating

Hippocrates thought that abnormal behavior resulted from an imbalance in the four humors, one of which was:

yellow bile, blood, black bile, and phlegm

Hippocrates's contribution to the development of our understanding of mental illness was the view that such conditions were the result of:

stress

Hippocrates attempted to treat mental disorders by:

correcting the underlying physical pathology

What model of mental illness did most people hold during the Middle Ages?

demonological-influence of Sata

Tarantism and lycanthropy are examples of:

mass madness

Those most often in charge of treating abnormality in the middle ages in europe were the:

clergymen

The first physician to specialize in mental illness was:

Johann Weyer

In many areas, asylums of the 1500s, such as Bethlehem asylum in London, became:

tourist attractions

What is the distinction of Bethlehem Hospital, founded in London in 1547?

popularly called "bedlum"

The basis for moral treatment of asylum patients was the belief that:

patients were perceived as productive human beings whose mental functioning had simply broken down

The man who brought about the reforms of moral therapy to northern England was:

William Tuke

The man who brought the reforms of moral therapy to the US was:

Benjamin Rush

the american schoolteacher who lobbied state legistlautres for law to mandate human treatment of people with mental disorders was:

Dorothea Dix

The "moral treatment" movement rapidly declined in the late 19th century because:

money and staffing shortages, recovery rates declines, overcrowding, assumption that all can be cured

part of the downfall of moral therapy was that

people assumed all patients could be cured if treated with humanity

hippocrates' model of mental illness would be described as

a somatogenic perspective

another term for a cluster of symptoms is

syndrome

the finding that syphilis causes general paresis is important because it supports the idea that

organic factors are responsible for mental disorders

the german researcher who argued that physical factors may cause mental dysfunction, and who developed the first modern classification system for abnormal behaviors, was:

Emil Kraepelin

The somatogenic treatment for mental illness that seems to have been the mose successful was the use of:

various meds

mesmer because famous (or infamous) for his work with pateitns suffering from bodily problems with no physical basis. his patients' disorders are termed:

hysterical disorders

an otherwise "normal" person during hypnotic suggestion is made to bark, sit, and fetch like a dog. the occurrence of these "abnormal" behaviors lends support to which explanation for abnormality?

the psychogenic perspective

the 19th century physician who argued that hysterical disorders were the result of degeneration in portions of the brain was:

Charcot

The early psychogenic treatment that was advocated by Jean Charcot, Josef Breuer, and even Sigmund Freud was:

hypnotism

Acquiring insight about unconscious psychological processes is a feature of:

psychoanalysis

"many people are not away of the sources of their abnormality, because abnormality often arises from unconscious psychological processes; such people need insight about those processes." Who would agree most strongly with this statement?

Sigmund Freud

Psychoanalysis is NOT very effective for hospitalized mental patients because:

it requires levels of clarity, insight and verbal skills

a medical researcher develops a drug that decreases symptoms of depression and other "mood" disorders. the general term for this type of drug is:

antidepressant

Drugs designed to decrease extremely confused and distorted thinking are termed:

antipsychotic drugs

Drugs that alleviate the symptoms of mental dysfunction by affecting the brain are called:

psychotropic medication

Jena is very unhappy. the condition is chronic and severe. if her psychiatrist prescribed medication it would likely be:

an antidepressant

in 1995, 600,000 people were in public mental health institutions in the US. since 1955, the number of institutionalized persons has:

Decreased

in the US today, one is most likely to find a severely ill mental patient:

on the street or in jail

one cause of the increase in homeless individuals in recent decades has been the:

community mental health approach

the approach to therapy for mental illness in which a person pays a psychotherapist for services is called:

private psychotherapy

Surveys suggest that about what proportion of adults in the US receive psychological therapy in a typical year?

1/5

the fact that hundreds of thousands of people with severe psychological disturbances end up living on the streets or in jails points out one deficiency of:

deinstitutionalization

if you are a typical person undergoing therapy in the US, your therapy will last for:

fewer than 5 sessions per year

a significant change in the type of care offered now compared with the time Freud was practicing is that:

people are more likely to be treated for living problems

When community programs are focused on correcting social conditions that give rise to psychological problems, the approach is called:

prevention

a psychologist focuses on optimism, wisdom, happiness, an interpersonal skill. the psychologist is most likely:

promoting positive psychology

if a patient is a minority group member and has trouble affording treatment, feels uncomfortable with the therapist, and doesn't see results, the person is at risk for:

dropping out of therapy

"What the &#%@# is going on? the insurance company says i have to stop my anger management program now!" the client who says this is most likely voicing concern about a

managed care program

Parity laws for insurance coverage of mental health treatment mandate that:

insurance companies provide equal coverage for mental and medical problems

a physician who offers psychotherapy is called a:

psychiatrist

The specialty that presently has the largest number of practitioners is:

social workers

a psychiatrist receives three to four years of training in the treatment of abnormal functioning after medical school; this training is called a:

residency

one major difference between psychiatrists and clinical psychologists is that psychiatrists

complete a residency in a medical setting

a person is hard at work trying to discover which combination of environmental genetic factors produces schizophrenia. most likely, the person is a:

clinical researcher

the total economic cost of psycholigcal disorders, including substance abuse, in the US is closes to:

400 billion

clinical psychologists are unique among mental health professionals because they:

use psychological tests and conduct research

in science, the perspectives used to explain phenomena are known as

models or paradigms

the models or paradigm an investigator uses influences:

questions and observations the investigator uses

the model of abnormality hat cites physical processes as being the key to behavior is the:

biological model

the model of abnormality that examines the effects of society and culture is the:

sociocultural model

the model of abnormality that focuses on unconscious internal processes and conflicts in behavior is the:

sociocultural model

the model of abnormality that focuses on unconscious internal processes and conflicts in behavior is the:

psychodynamic model

the model of abnormality that focuses on learning is the:

behavioral model

the model of abnormality that concentrates on thinking is the:

cognitive model

the model of abnormality that focuses on the roles in behavior is the:

humanistic-existential model

huntington's disease, which has psychological as well as physical aspects, results from loss of cells in the:

basal ganglia

messages moving from neuron to neuron must cross tiny spaces called:

synapses

depression has been linked to which neurotransmitter abnormality

serotonin

abnormal chemical activity in the body's endocrine system relates to the release of:

hormones

in how many cases of psychological disorders does an individual gene appear to be responsible?

vitrually none- it take many genes

current research suggest that schizophrenia may be related to:

inheritance

an important factor to consider in using drugs for the treatment of abnormality would be that:

drugs are believed to be over-used and don't help everyone

electoconvulsive therapy (ECT) is used most often in the treatment of

depression

an assumption of determinism is that abnormal behaviors:

no behavior is accidental. all is determined by past experiences.

Freud believed that the three central forces that shape the personality were the:

ego, superego, and id

what we would call "conscience" is most like what Freud would call the:

superego

according to Freud's psychodynamic theory, ineffective interaction of the id, ego, and superego can lead to entrapment at a developmental level. this is called:

fixation

the motivation to form relationships with other is a central theme of:

object relations theory

a general term used for theories such as Freud's, Adler's, and Jung's is:

psychodynamic

the model most likely to suggest using free association to uncover unconscious processes is the _______ model.

psychodynamic

Colin is asked to "free associate" about his mother's new husband and he responds by changing the subject. A psychodynamic therapist would consider this an example of:

resistance

The model most likely to use terms such as "resistance" and "transference" is the ______ model.

psychodynamic

according to Freud, another term for the symbolic meaning of dreams isL

latent content

if a patient relives past repressed feelings, that patient is said to have experienced ______, according to psychoanalysts.

catharsis

a patient participates in weekly therapy for several years, gradually becoming aware of the impact of early life events on present functioning. the form of psychotherapy the patient is reciving is called:

psychodynamic theory

"when i was young, i met a large dog. i wasn't afriad of the dog, but as i tried to pet it, the dog snarled and jumped at me. i have been afraid of dogs ever since." a therapist who that this sentence describes a phobia acquired from classical conditioning most likely favors which model of abnormality?

behavioral

when a young child yells and throws toys (temper tantrums) the parents give the child a good deal of attention. as time goes on, the temper tantrums become more and more common. a behavioral psychologist would say that the temper tantrums result from:

operant conditioning

animals and humans learn without reinforcement. they learn just by watching. this form of learning is called:

modeling

the model most likely to emphasize the important of one's history of conditioning as the source of depression is the _______ model.

behavioral

a previously neutral environmental even that becomes associated with the unconditioned stimulus is called a:

conditioned response

if you imagine biting into a big, juicy, sour lemon, you are likely to salivate. the lemon is an example of:

unconditioned stimulus

if you close your eyes and imagine biting into a big, sour lemon, you are likely to salivate. the salivation to this imagery is an example of:

conditioned response

if, after conditioning, the conditioned stimulus is repeatedly present alone (without the unconditioned stimulus), it will eventually stop eliciting the conditioned response through a process called:

extinction

the first step in using the treatment called "systematic desensitization" is to:

learn the skill of relaxation over the course of several sessions

systematic desensitization has been shown to be especially effective in the treatment of:

phobias

"thoughts, as well as overt behaviors, are acquired and modified by various forms of conditioning." the orientation of the author of this quote would most likely be:

cognitive behavioral

if you believe that you can master and perform needed behaviors whenever necessary, Bandura would say that you had a positive sense of:

self-efficacy

an athlete who is in fact well prepared nevertheless thinks just before a contest, "i can't do this! i need to be perfect, and i know i'm going to fail." the theorist who would emphasize the illogical thinking process of this athlete as a source of poor performance most likely would support which model of abnormality?

cognitive model

the form of therapy that helps clients recognize errors in logic, and try out new interpretations of events is:

cognitive therapy

Henry goes into a fit of depression and self-abuse when anyone criticizes or expresses disapproval. Much of what he does is for the purpose of getting people to like him. Cognitive theorists would say that Henry's depression results in large part from:

illogical thinking

When Jose did not get the job, he was sure that everything was going wrong, that his life was completely off track. this thought is an example of

overgeneralization

if a patient is being guided to challenge irrational thinking and to try out new interpretations, the patient is most likely being treated by a follower of:

Beck

"when we try to establish how abnormality develops, we need to consider how individuals deal with the meaning of life, and with the value they find in living." a psychologist from which background would agree most strongly with this statement?

humanistic existential

according to __________, the self-actualization motive plays an important part in human functioning.

humanists

a therapist who believes people often hide from their responsibilities, and therefore often feel alienated, depressed, inauthentic--empty--would most likely be:

existential

humanists would say that an individual who cares about others, is spontaneous, courageous, and independent:

self-actualizing

if you recognize your worth as a person, carl rogers would say that you have devloped:

unconditional self-regard

the term for the form of psychotherapy pioneered by carl rogers is:

client-centered therapy

a therapist listens carefully to a client's words, then attempts to show accurate empathy and genuineness. the hope is that the client will self-examine with acceptance and honesty. most likely the therapist is:

humanistic

in rogers' therapy, the honesty and genuineness of the therapist allows clients to look at themselves with acceptance in a process called:

experiencing

"that's all right. you're doing your best, dont worry. i am here for you." a therapist who would say this as a primary part of the therapy process would most probably follow the ____ tradition.

humanistic

when a gestalt therapist refuses to meet her patient's demands, the therapist is using:

skillful frustration

"you can do anything you want. you can lead a perfectly useless life. it is all up to you." a therapist who would say these frustrating statements as a primary part of the therapy process would follow the _____ tradition.

existential

therapists who often deliberately frustrate and challenge their clients, and who often use role playing and a "here and now" orientation, are:

gestalt

the model of abnormality that pays particular attention to a client's family structure, societal normals, and a client's roles in society is:

the sociocultural model

david rosenhan sent "pseudopatients" to a mental hospital where they pretend to be disturbed. the results led him to conclude that _____ greatly impacts mental illness.

labeling

according to family systems theory, families that show "disengagement" are characterized by:

very rigid boundaries, children might find it hard to function in a group or to give or request support

if a mother seems excessively involved in her child's life such that they do not seem to be independent people, their relationship is said to be

enmeshed

current multicultural perspectives are most likely to focus on:

special external pressure is faced by members of a culture

multicultural theorists would explain the higher levels of mental illness among poor people as most likely due to:

social pressures leading to stress

recent research on the role of religion in mental health shows that religious people:

cope better with life stresses than unreligious

if a therapist advised you to pay attention to how you were communicating with family members and to change harmful patterns, the therapist would most likely be practicing:

conjoint family therapy

a primary focus of the community treatment approach to abnormality is:

prevention

providing treatment as soon as it is needed, so that problems that are moderate or worse do not become long-term, is called:

primary prevention

combining any two or more treatment techniques results in an approach is called:

eclectic

about what percent of clinicians today would describe their approach as eclectic?

more than 20%

imagine that a man inherits the tendency to be socially awkward. that leads him to choose inappropriate romantic partners who increase his level of stress. a biopsychosocial therapist would use the _____ effects explanation of his functioning.

reciprocal

a mental health practictioner attempts to learn about the behavior and emotional state of each client. this approach to abnormal psychology is called:

idiographic

when graduate schools choose students based on test scores, college grades, and relevant experience, they are engaging in:

assessment

a functional analysis involves:

an analysis of how the behaviors are learned and reinforced

one of the assumptions of a functional analysis is that:

abnormal behaviors are learned

a clinician gathers data about what things might be reinforcing to someone's abnormal behavior. this variety of assessment is called:

behavioral

another term for developing norms for an assessment tool is:

standardization

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