Chapter 1-The Atmosphere
|Weather||the condition of Earth's atmosphere at a particular time and place|
|Atmosphere||the envelope of gases that surrounds the planet|
|Ozone||a form of oxygen that has three oxygen atoms in each molecule instead of the usual two.|
|Water Vapor||water in the form of a gas|
|Density||the amount of mass in a given volume of air|
|Pressure||the force pushing on an area or surface|
|Air Pressure||the result of the weight of a column of air pushing down on an area|
|Barometer||an instrument that is used to measure air pressure|
|Mercury Barometer||consists of a glass tube open at the bottom end and partially filled with mercury.|
|Aneroid Barometer||has an airtight metal chamber. The metal chamber is sensitive to changes in air pressure. When air pressure increases, the thin walls of the chamber are pushed in. When air pressure drops, the walls bulge out.|
|Troposphere|| (0-12 km) the inner layer of Earth's atmosphere|
FUNCTION: layer where most weather occurs. Rain, snow storms and clouds.
Tropo- means turning or changing
|Stratosphere|| (12- 50 km) contains the ozone layer in the stratosphere FUNCTION:absorbs ultraviolet radiation.|
Strato- means layer or spread out
|Mesosphere|| (50-80 km) above the atmosphere, a drop in temperature, FUNCTION: protects the Earth's surface because most meteoroids burn in the mesosphere producing meteor trails of hot glowing gases.|
Meso- means middle
|Thermosphere|| (above 80 km) The outer most layer of the Earth's atmosphere. extends from 80 kilometers above Earth's surface outward into space. It has no definite outer limit.|
Thermo- means heat
|Ionosphere|| (80-400 km) The lower layer of the thermosphere. Energy from the sun causes gas molecules to becine electrically charged particles called Ions. |
FUNCTION: The ionosphere reflect radio waves back to Earth. The Aurora Borealis occurs in the ionosphere creating the Northern Lights.
|Exosphere|| (Above 400 km) The outer layer of the thermosphere, begins at 400 kilometers and extends outward for thousands of kilometers. |
FUNCTION: Phone calls and television pictures are relayed by way of communications satellites that orbit Earth.
Exo- means outer
|Pollutants||harmful substances in the air, water, or soil|
|Photochemical Smog|| the bronze haze that develops in sunny cities|
FORMED: by the action of sunlight on pollutants such as hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxides.
Photo- means light
|Acid Rain|| rain that contains more acid than normal|
FORMED: the burning of coal that contains a lot of sulfur produces sulfur oxides, substances composed of sulfur and oxygen.
|Altitude|| also know as elevation is the distance above sea level, the average level of the surface of the oceans.|
Air pressure DECREASES as altitude INCREASES. As air pressure decreases so does density.